Dictionary

struct Dictionary<Key, Value where Key : Hashable>

A collection whose elements are key-value pairs.

A dictionary is a type of hash table, providing fast access to the entries it contains. Each entry in the table is identified using its key, which is a hashable type such as a string or number. You use that key to retrieve the corresponding value, which can be any object. In other languages, similar data types are known as hashes or associated arrays.

Create a new dictionary by using a dictionary literal. A dictionary literal is a comma-separated list of key-value pairs, in which a colon separates each key from its associated value, surrounded by square brackets. You can assign a dictionary literal to a variable or constant or pass it to a function that expects a dictionary.

Here's how you would create a dictionary of HTTP response codes and their related messages:

var responseMessages = [200: "OK",
                        403: "Access forbidden",
                        404: "File not found",
                        500: "Internal server error"]

The responseMessages variable is inferred to have type [Int: String]. The Key type of the dictionary is Int, and the Value type of the dictionary is String.

To create a dictionary with no key-value pairs, use an empty dictionary literal ([:]).

var emptyDict: [String: String] = [:]

Any type that conforms to the Hashable protocol can be used as a dictionary's Key type, including all of Swift's basic types. You can use your own custom types as dictionary keys by making them conform to the Hashable protocol.

Getting and Setting Dictionary Values

The most common way to access values in a dictionary is to use a key as a subscript. Subscripting with a key takes the following form:

print(responseMessages[200])
// Prints "Optional("OK")"

Subscripting a dictionary with a key returns an optional value, because a dictionary might not hold a value for the key that you use in the subscript.

The next example uses key-based subscripting of the responseMessages dictionary with two keys that exist in the dictionary and one that does not.

let httpResponseCodes = [200, 403, 301]
for code in httpResponseCodes {
    if let message = responseMessages[code] {
        print("Response \(code): \(message)")
    } else {
        print("Unknown response \(code)")
    }
}
// Prints "Response 200: OK"
// Prints "Response 403: Access Forbidden"
// Prints "Unknown response 301"

You can also update, modify, or remove keys and values from a dictionary using the key-based subscript. To add a new key-value pair, assign a value to a key that isn't yet a part of the dictionary.

responseMessages[301] = "Moved permanently"
print(responseMessages[301])
// Prints "Optional("Moved permanently")"

Update an existing value by assigning a new value to a key that already exists in the dictionary. If you assign nil to an existing key, the key and its associated value are removed. The following example updates the value for the 404 code to be simply "Not found" and removes the key-value pair for the 500 code entirely.

responseMessages[404] = "Not found"
responseMessages[500] = nil
print(responseMessages)
// Prints "[301: "Moved permanently", 200: "OK", 403: "Access forbidden", 404: "Not found"]"

In a mutable Dictionary instance, you can modify in place a value that you've accessed through a keyed subscript. The code sample below declares a dictionary called interestingNumbers with string keys and values that are integer arrays, then sorts each array in-place in descending order.

var interestingNumbers = ["primes": [2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 15],
                          "triangular": [1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28],
                          "hexagonal": [1, 6, 15, 28, 45, 66, 91]]
for key in interestingNumbers.keys {
    interestingNumbers[key]?.sort(by: >)
}

print(interestingNumbers["primes"]!)
// Prints "[15, 13, 11, 7, 5, 3, 2]"

Iterating Over the Contents of a Dictionary

Every dictionary is an unordered collection of key-value pairs. You can iterate over a dictionary using a for-in loop, decomposing each key-value pair into the elements of a tuple.

let imagePaths = ["star": "/glyphs/star.png",
                  "portrait": "/images/content/portrait.jpg",
                  "spacer": "/images/shared/spacer.gif"]

for (name, path) in imagePaths {
    print("The path to '\(name)' is '\(path)'.")
}
// Prints "The path to 'star' is '/glyphs/star.png'."
// Prints "The path to 'portrait' is '/images/content/portrait.jpg'."
// Prints "The path to 'spacer' is '/images/shared/spacer.gif'."

The order of key-value pairs in a dictionary is stable between mutations but is otherwise unpredictable. If you need an ordered collection of key-value pairs and don't need the fast key lookup that Dictionary provides, see the DictionaryLiteral type for an alternative.

You can search a dictionary's contents for a particular value using the contains(where:) or index(where:) methods supplied by default implementation. The following example checks to see if imagePaths contains any paths in the "/glyphs" directory:

let glyphIndex = imagePaths.index { $0.value.hasPrefix("/glyphs") }
if let index = glyphIndex {
    print("The '\(imagesPaths[index].key)' image is a glyph.")
} else {
    print("No glyphs found!")
}
// Prints "The 'star' image is a glyph.")

Note that in this example, imagePaths is subscripted using a dictionary index. Unlike the key-based subscript, the index-based subscript returns the corresponding key-value pair as a non-optional tuple.

print(imagePaths[glyphIndex!])
// Prints "("star", "/glyphs/star.png")"

A dictionary's indices stay valid across additions to the dictionary as long as the dictionary has enough capacity to store the added values without allocating more buffer. When a dictionary outgrows its buffer, existing indices may be invalidated without any notification.

When you know how many new values you're adding to a dictionary, use the init(minimumCapacity:) initializer to allocate the correct amount of buffer.

Bridging Between Dictionary and NSDictionary

You can bridge between Dictionary and NSDictionary using the as operator. For bridging to be possible, the Key and Value types of a dictionary must be classes, @objc protocols, or types that bridge to Foundation types.

Bridging from Dictionary to NSDictionary always takes O(1) time and space. When the dictionary's Key and Value types are neither classes nor @objc protocols, any required bridging of elements occurs at the first access of each element. For this reason, the first operation that uses the contents of the dictionary may take O(n).

Bridging from NSDictionary to Dictionary first calls the copy(with:) method (**copyWithZone:** in Objective-C) on the dictionary to get an immutable copy and then performs additional Swift bookkeeping work that takes O(1) time. For instances of NSDictionary that are already immutable, copy(with:) usually returns the same dictionary in O(1) time; otherwise, the copying performance is unspecified. The instances of NSDictionary and Dictionary share buffer using the same copy-on-write optimization that is used when two instances of Dictionary share buffer.

See Also: Hashable

Inheritance Collection, CustomDebugStringConvertible, CustomReflectable, CustomStringConvertible, ExpressibleByDictionaryLiteral, Sequence View Protocol Hierarchy →
Associated Types
Element = (key: Key, value: Value)

The element type of a dictionary: a tuple containing an individual key-value pair.

Iterator = DictionaryIterator<Dictionary.Key, Dictionary.Value>

Type alias inferred.

Index = Dictionary.Index

Type alias inferred.

SubSequence = Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Type alias inferred.

Nested Types Dictionary.Index
Import import Swift

Initializers

init()

Creates an empty dictionary.

Declaration

init()
init(dictionaryLiteral:)

Creates a dictionary initialized with a dictionary literal.

Do not call this initializer directly. It is called by the compiler to handle dictionary literals. To use a dictionary literal as the initial value of a dictionary, enclose a comma-separated list of key-value pairs in square brackets.

For example, the code sample below creates a dictionary with string keys and values.

let countryCodes = ["BR": "Brazil", "GH": "Ghana", "JP": "Japan"]
print(countryCodes)
// Prints "["BR": "Brazil", "JP": "Japan", "GH": "Ghana"]"

elements: The key-value pairs that will make up the new dictionary. Each key in elements must be unique.

See Also: ExpressibleByDictionaryLiteral

Declaration

init(dictionaryLiteral elements: (Key, Value)...)
init(minimumCapacity:)

Creates a dictionary with at least the given number of elements worth of buffer.

Use this initializer to avoid intermediate reallocations when you know how many key-value pairs you are adding to a dictionary. The actual capacity of the created dictionary is the smallest power of 2 that is greater than or equal to minimumCapacity.

minimumCapacity: The minimum number of key-value pairs to allocate buffer for in the new dictionary.

Declaration

init(minimumCapacity: Int)

Instance Variables

var count: Int

The number of key-value pairs in the dictionary.

Complexity: O(1).

Declaration

var count: Int { get }
var customMirror: Mirror

A mirror that reflects the dictionary.

Declaration

var customMirror: Mirror { get }
var debugDescription: String

A string that represents the contents of the dictionary, suitable for debugging.

Declaration

var debugDescription: String { get }
var description: String

A string that represents the contents of the dictionary.

Declaration

var description: String { get }
var endIndex: Dictionary.Index

The dictionary's "past the end" position---that is, the position one greater than the last valid subscript argument.

If the collection is empty, endIndex is equal to startIndex.

Complexity: Amortized O(1) if the dictionary does not wrap a bridged NSDictionary; otherwise, the performance is unspecified.

Declaration

var endIndex: Dictionary.Index { get }
var first: (key: Key, value: Value)?

The first element of the collection.

If the collection is empty, the value of this property is nil.

let numbers = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
if let firstNumber = numbers.first {
    print(firstNumber)
}
// Prints "10"

Declaration

var first: (key: Key, value: Value)? { get }

Declared In

Collection
var isEmpty: Bool

A Boolean value that indicates whether the dictionary is empty. (read only)

Dictionaries are empty when created with an initializer or an empty dictionary literal.

var frequencies: [String: Int] = [:]
print(frequencies.isEmpty)
// Prints "true"

Declaration

var isEmpty: Bool { get }

Declared In

Dictionary , Collection
var keys: LazyMapCollection<[Key : Value], Key>

A collection containing just the keys of the dictionary.

When iterated over, keys appear in this collection in the same order as they occur in the dictionary's key-value pairs. Each key in the keys collection has a unique value.

let countryCodes = ["BR": "Brazil", "GH": "Ghana", "JP": "Japan"]
for k in countryCodes.keys {
    print(k)
}
// Prints "BR"
// Prints "JP"
// Prints "GH"

Declaration

var keys: LazyMapCollection<[Key : Value], Key> { get }
var lazy: LazyCollection<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

A view onto this collection that provides lazy implementations of normally eager operations, such as map and filter.

Use the lazy property when chaining operations to prevent intermediate operations from allocating storage, or when you only need a part of the final collection to avoid unnecessary computation.

See Also: LazySequenceProtocol, LazyCollectionProtocol.

Declaration

var lazy: LazyCollection<Dictionary<Key, Value>> { get }

Declared In

Collection
var startIndex: Dictionary.Index

The position of the first element in a nonempty dictionary.

If the collection is empty, startIndex is equal to endIndex.

Complexity: Amortized O(1) if the dictionary does not wrap a bridged NSDictionary. If the dictionary wraps a bridged NSDictionary, the performance is unspecified.

Declaration

var startIndex: Dictionary.Index { get }
var underestimatedCount: Int

A value less than or equal to the number of elements in the collection.

Complexity: O(1) if the collection conforms to RandomAccessCollection; otherwise, O(n), where n is the length of the collection.

Declaration

var underestimatedCount: Int { get }

Declared In

Collection , Sequence
var values: LazyMapCollection<[Key : Value], Value>

A collection containing just the values of the dictionary.

When iterated over, values appear in this collection in the same order as they occur in the dictionary's key-value pairs.

let countryCodes = ["BR": "Brazil", "GH": "Ghana", "JP": "Japan"]
print(countryCodes)
// Prints "["BR": "Brazil", "JP": "Japan", "GH": "Ghana"]"
for v in countryCodes.values {
    print(v)
}
// Prints "Brazil"
// Prints "Japan"
// Prints "Ghana"

Declaration

var values: LazyMapCollection<[Key : Value], Value> { get }

Subscripts

subscript(_: _Hashable)

Declaration

subscript(key: _Hashable) -> Value?
subscript(_: Dictionary.Index)

Accesses the key-value pair at the specified position.

This subscript takes an index into the dictionary, instead of a key, and returns the corresponding key-value pair as a tuple. When performing collection-based operations that return an index into a dictionary, use this subscript with the resulting value.

For example, to find the key for a particular value in a dictionary, use the index(where:) method.

let countryCodes = ["BR": "Brazil", "GH": "Ghana", "JP": "Japan"]
if let index = countryCodes.index(where: { $0.value == "Japan" }) {
    print(countryCodes[index])
    print("Japan's country code is '\(countryCodes[index].key)'.")
} else {
    print("Didn't find 'Japan' as a value in the dictionary.")
}
// Prints "("JP", "Japan")"
// Prints "Japan's country code is 'JP'."

position: The position of the key-value pair to access. position must be a valid index of the dictionary and not equal to endIndex. Returns: A two-element tuple with the key and value corresponding to position.

Declaration

subscript(position: Dictionary.Index) -> (key: Key, value: Value) { get }
subscript(_: Key)

Accesses the value associated with the given key for reading and writing.

This key-based subscript returns the value for the given key if the key is found in the dictionary, or nil if the key is not found.

The following example creates a new dictionary and prints the value of a key found in the dictionary ("Coral") and a key not found in the dictionary ("Cerise").

var hues = ["Heliotrope": 296, "Coral": 16, "Aquamarine": 156]
print(hues["Coral"])
// Prints "Optional(16)"
print(hues["Cerise"])
// Prints "nil"

When you assign a value for a key and that key already exists, the dictionary overwrites the existing value. If the dictionary doesn't contain the key, the key and value are added as a new key-value pair.

Here, the value for the key "Coral" is updated from 16 to 18 and a new key-value pair is added for the key "Cerise".

hues["Coral"] = 18
print(hues["Coral"])
// Prints "Optional(18)"

hues["Cerise"] = 330
print(hues["Cerise"])
// Prints "Optional(330)"

If you assign nil as the value for the given key, the dictionary removes that key and its associated value.

In the following example, the key-value pair for the key "Aquamarine" is removed from the dictionary by assigning nil to the key-based subscript.

hues["Aquamarine"] = nil
print(hues)
// Prints "["Coral": 18, "Heliotrope": 296, "Cerise": 330]"

key: The key to find in the dictionary. Returns: The value associated with key if key is in the dictionary; otherwise, nil.

Declaration

subscript(key: Key) -> Value?
subscript(_: Range<Dictionary.Index>)

Accesses a contiguous subrange of the collection's elements.

The accessed slice uses the same indices for the same elements as the original collection uses. Always use the slice's startIndex property instead of assuming that its indices start at a particular value.

This example demonstrates getting a slice of an array of strings, finding the index of one of the strings in the slice, and then using that index in the original array.

let streets = ["Adams", "Bryant", "Channing", "Douglas", "Evarts"]
let streetsSlice = streets[2 ..< streets.endIndex]
print(streetsSlice)
// Prints "["Channing", "Douglas", "Evarts"]"

let index = streetsSlice.index(of: "Evarts")    // 4
print(streets[index!])
// Prints "Evarts"

bounds: A range of the collection's indices. The bounds of the range must be valid indices of the collection.

Complexity: O(1)

Declaration

subscript(bounds: Range<Dictionary.Index>) -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>> { get }

Declared In

Collection

Instance Methods

func !=(_:rhs:)

Declaration

func !=(lhs: [Key : Value], rhs: [Key : Value]) -> Bool
func ==(_:rhs:)

Declaration

func ==(lhs: [Key : Value], rhs: [Key : Value]) -> Bool
func contains(where:)

Returns a Boolean value indicating whether the sequence contains an element that satisfies the given predicate.

You can use the predicate to check for an element of a type that doesn't conform to the Equatable protocol, such as the HTTPResponse enumeration in this example.

enum HTTPResponse {
    case ok
    case error(Int)
}

let lastThreeResponses: [HTTPResponse] = [.ok, .ok, .error(404)]
let hadError = lastThreeResponses.contains { element in
    if case .error = element {
        return true
    } else {
        return false
    }
}
// 'hadError' == true

Alternatively, a predicate can be satisfied by a range of Equatable elements or a general condition. This example shows how you can check an array for an expense greater than $100.

let expenses = [21.37, 55.21, 9.32, 10.18, 388.77, 11.41]
let hasBigPurchase = expenses.contains { $0 > 100 }
// 'hasBigPurchase' == true

predicate: A closure that takes an element of the sequence as its argument and returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the passed element represents a match. Returns: true if the sequence contains an element that satisfies predicate; otherwise, false.

Declaration

func contains(where predicate: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> Bool

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func drop(while:)

Returns a subsequence by skipping elements while predicate returns true and returning the remaining elements.

predicate: A closure that takes an element of the sequence as its argument and returns true if the element should be skipped or false if it should be included. Once the predicate returns false it will not be called again.

Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the collection.

Declaration

func drop(while predicate: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection
func dropFirst()

Returns a subsequence containing all but the first element of the sequence.

The following example drops the first element from an array of integers.

let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.dropFirst())
// Prints "[2, 3, 4, 5]"

If the sequence has no elements, the result is an empty subsequence.

let empty: [Int] = []
print(empty.dropFirst())
// Prints "[]"

Returns: A subsequence starting after the first element of the sequence.

Complexity: O(1)

Declaration

func dropFirst() -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func dropFirst(_:)

Returns a subsequence containing all but the given number of initial elements.

If the number of elements to drop exceeds the number of elements in the collection, the result is an empty subsequence.

let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.dropFirst(2))
// Prints "[3, 4, 5]"
print(numbers.dropFirst(10))
// Prints "[]"

n: The number of elements to drop from the beginning of the collection. n must be greater than or equal to zero. Returns: A subsequence starting after the specified number of elements.

Complexity: O(n), where n is the number of elements to drop from the beginning of the collection.

Declaration

func dropFirst(_ n: Int) -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection
func dropLast()

Returns a subsequence containing all but the last element of the sequence.

The sequence must be finite.

let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.dropLast())
// Prints "[1, 2, 3, 4]"

If the sequence has no elements, the result is an empty subsequence.

let empty: [Int] = []
print(empty.dropLast())
// Prints "[]"

Returns: A subsequence leaving off the last element of the sequence.

Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the sequence.

Declaration

func dropLast() -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func dropLast(_:)

Returns a subsequence containing all but the specified number of final elements.

If the number of elements to drop exceeds the number of elements in the collection, the result is an empty subsequence.

let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.dropLast(2))
// Prints "[1, 2, 3]"
print(numbers.dropLast(10))
// Prints "[]"

n: The number of elements to drop off the end of the collection. n must be greater than or equal to zero. Returns: A subsequence that leaves off the specified number of elements at the end.

Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the collection.

Declaration

func dropLast(_ n: Int) -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection
func elementsEqual(_:by:)

Returns a Boolean value indicating whether this sequence and another sequence contain equivalent elements, using the given predicate as the equivalence test.

At least one of the sequences must be finite.

The predicate must be a equivalence relation over the elements. That is, for any elements a, b, and c, the following conditions must hold:

  • areEquivalent(a, a) is always true. (Reflexivity)
  • areEquivalent(a, b) implies areEquivalent(b, a). (Symmetry)
  • If areEquivalent(a, b) and areEquivalent(b, c) are both true, then areEquivalent(a, c) is also true. (Transitivity)

Parameters: other: A sequence to compare to this sequence. areEquivalent: A predicate that returns true if its two arguments are equivalent; otherwise, false. Returns: true if this sequence and other contain equivalent items, using areEquivalent as the equivalence test; otherwise, false.

See Also: elementsEqual(_:)

Declaration

func elementsEqual<OtherSequence where OtherSequence : Sequence, (key: Key, value: Value) == OtherSequence.Iterator.Element>(_ other: OtherSequence, by areEquivalent: ((key: Key, value: Value), (key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> Bool

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func enumerated()

Returns a sequence of pairs (n, x), where n represents a consecutive integer starting at zero, and x represents an element of the sequence.

This example enumerates the characters of the string "Swift" and prints each character along with its place in the string.

for (n, c) in "Swift".characters.enumerated() {
    print("\(n): '\(c)'")
}
// Prints "0: 'S'"
// Prints "1: 'w'"
// Prints "2: 'i'"
// Prints "3: 'f'"
// Prints "4: 't'"

When enumerating a collection, the integer part of each pair is a counter for the enumeration, not necessarily the index of the paired value. These counters can only be used as indices in instances of zero-based, integer-indexed collections, such as Array and ContiguousArray. For other collections the counters may be out of range or of the wrong type to use as an index. To iterate over the elements of a collection with its indices, use the zip(_:_:) function.

This example iterates over the indices and elements of a set, building a list of indices of names with five or fewer letters.

let names: Set = ["Sofia", "Camilla", "Martina", "Mateo", "Nicolás"]
var shorterIndices: [SetIndex<String>] = []
for (i, name) in zip(names.indices, names) {
    if name.characters.count <= 5 {
        shorterIndices.append(i)
    }
}

Now that the shorterIndices array holds the indices of the shorter names in the names set, you can use those indices to access elements in the set.

for i in shorterIndices {
    print(names[i])
}
// Prints "Sofia"
// Prints "Mateo"

Returns: A sequence of pairs enumerating the sequence.

Declaration

func enumerated() -> EnumeratedSequence<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func filter(_:)

Returns an array containing, in order, the elements of the sequence that satisfy the given predicate.

In this example, filter is used to include only names shorter than five characters.

let cast = ["Vivien", "Marlon", "Kim", "Karl"]
let shortNames = cast.filter { $0.characters.count < 5 }
print(shortNames)
// Prints "["Kim", "Karl"]"

isIncluded: A closure that takes an element of the sequence as its argument and returns a Boolean value indicating whether the element should be included in the returned array. Returns: An array of the elements that includeElement allowed.

Declaration

func filter(_ isIncluded: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> [(key: Key, value: Value)]

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func first(where:)

Returns the first element of the sequence that satisfies the given predicate.

The following example uses the first(where:) method to find the first negative number in an array of integers:

let numbers = [3, 7, 4, -2, 9, -6, 10, 1]
if let firstNegative = numbers.first(where: { $0 < 0 }) {
    print("The first negative number is \(firstNegative).")
}
// Prints "The first negative number is -2."

predicate: A closure that takes an element of the sequence as its argument and returns a Boolean value indicating whether the element is a match. Returns: The first element of the sequence that satisfies predicate, or nil if there is no element that satisfies predicate.

Declaration

func first(where predicate: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> (key: Key, value: Value)?

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func flatMap<ElementOfResult>(_: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> ElementOfResult?)

Returns an array containing the non-nil results of calling the given transformation with each element of this sequence.

Use this method to receive an array of nonoptional values when your transformation produces an optional value.

In this example, note the difference in the result of using map and flatMap with a transformation that returns an optional Int value.

let possibleNumbers = ["1", "2", "three", "///4///", "5"]

let mapped: [Int?] = possibleNumbers.map { str in Int(str) }
// [1, 2, nil, nil, 5]

let flatMapped: [Int] = possibleNumbers.flatMap { str in Int(str) }
// [1, 2, 5]

transform: A closure that accepts an element of this sequence as its argument and returns an optional value. Returns: An array of the non-nil results of calling transform with each element of the sequence.

Complexity: O(m + n), where m is the length of this sequence and n is the length of the result.

Declaration

func flatMap<ElementOfResult>(_ transform: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> ElementOfResult?) rethrows -> [ElementOfResult]

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func flatMap<SegmentOfResult where SegmentOfResult : Sequence>(_: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> SegmentOfResult)

Returns an array containing the concatenated results of calling the given transformation with each element of this sequence.

Use this method to receive a single-level collection when your transformation produces a sequence or collection for each element.

In this example, note the difference in the result of using map and flatMap with a transformation that returns an array.

let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4]

let mapped = numbers.map { Array(count: $0, repeatedValue: $0) }
// [[1], [2, 2], [3, 3, 3], [4, 4, 4, 4]]

let flatMapped = numbers.flatMap { Array(count: $0, repeatedValue: $0) }
// [1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4]

In fact, s.flatMap(transform) is equivalent to Array(s.map(transform).joined()).

transform: A closure that accepts an element of this sequence as its argument and returns a sequence or collection. Returns: The resulting flattened array.

Complexity: O(m + n), where m is the length of this sequence and n is the length of the result. See Also: joined(), map(_:)

Declaration

func flatMap<SegmentOfResult where SegmentOfResult : Sequence>(_ transform: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> SegmentOfResult) rethrows -> [SegmentOfResult.Iterator.Element]

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func forEach(_:)

Calls the given closure on each element in the sequence in the same order as a for-in loop.

The two loops in the following example produce the same output:

let numberWords = ["one", "two", "three"]
for word in numberWords {
    print(word)
}
// Prints "one"
// Prints "two"
// Prints "three"

numberWords.forEach { word in
    print(word)
}
// Same as above

Using the forEach method is distinct from a for-in loop in two important ways:

  1. You cannot use a break or continue statement to exit the current call of the body closure or skip subsequent calls.
  2. Using the return statement in the body closure will exit only from the current call to body, not from any outer scope, and won't skip subsequent calls.

body: A closure that takes an element of the sequence as a parameter.

Declaration

func forEach(_ body: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Swift.Void) rethrows

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func index(after:)

Returns the position immediately after the given index.

The successor of an index must be well defined. For an index i into a collection c, calling c.index(after: i) returns the same index every time.

i: A valid index of the collection. i must be less than endIndex. Returns: The index value immediately after i.

Declaration

func index(after i: Dictionary.Index) -> Dictionary.Index
func index(forKey:)

Returns the index for the given key.

If the given key is found in the dictionary, this method returns an index into the dictionary that corresponds with the key-value pair.

let countryCodes = ["BR": "Brazil", "GH": "Ghana", "JP": "Japan"]
let index = countryCodes.index(forKey: "JP")

print("Country code for \(countryCodes[index!].value): '\(countryCodes[index!].key)'.")
// Prints "Country code for Japan: 'JP'."

key: The key to find in the dictionary. Returns: The index for key and its associated value if key is in the dictionary; otherwise, nil.

Declaration

func index(forKey key: Dictionary.Key) -> Dictionary.Index?
func index(where:)

Returns the first index in which an element of the collection satisfies the given predicate.

You can use the predicate to find an element of a type that doesn't conform to the Equatable protocol or to find an element that matches particular criteria. Here's an example that finds a student name that begins with the letter "A":

let students = ["Kofi", "Abena", "Peter", "Kweku", "Akosua"]
if let i = students.index(where: { $0.hasPrefix("A") }) {
    print("\(students[i]) starts with 'A'!")
}
// Prints "Abena starts with 'A'!"

predicate: A closure that takes an element as its argument and returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the passed element represents a match. Returns: The index of the first element for which predicate returns true. If no elements in the collection satisfy the given predicate, returns nil.

See Also: index(of:)

Declaration

func index(where predicate: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> Dictionary.Index?

Declared In

Collection
func lexicographicallyPrecedes(_:by:)

Returns a Boolean value indicating whether the sequence precedes another sequence in a lexicographical (dictionary) ordering, using the given predicate to compare elements.

The predicate must be a strict weak ordering over the elements. That is, for any elements a, b, and c, the following conditions must hold:

  • areInIncreasingOrder(a, a) is always false. (Irreflexivity)
  • If areInIncreasingOrder(a, b) and areInIncreasingOrder(b, c) are both true, then areInIncreasingOrder(a, c) is also true. (Transitive comparability)
  • Two elements are incomparable if neither is ordered before the other according to the predicate. If a and b are incomparable, and b and c are incomparable, then a and c are also incomparable. (Transitive incomparability)

Parameters: other: A sequence to compare to this sequence. areInIncreasingOrder: A predicate that returns true if its first argument should be ordered before its second argument; otherwise, false. Returns: true if this sequence precedes other in a dictionary ordering as ordered by areInIncreasingOrder; otherwise, false.

Note: This method implements the mathematical notion of lexicographical ordering, which has no connection to Unicode. If you are sorting strings to present to the end user, use String APIs that perform localized comparison instead. See Also: lexicographicallyPrecedes(_:)

Declaration

func lexicographicallyPrecedes<OtherSequence where OtherSequence : Sequence, (key: Key, value: Value) == OtherSequence.Iterator.Element>(_ other: OtherSequence, by areInIncreasingOrder: ((key: Key, value: Value), (key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> Bool

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func makeIterator()

Returns an iterator over the dictionary's key-value pairs.

Iterating over a dictionary yields the key-value pairs as two-element tuples. You can decompose the tuple in a for-in loop, which calls makeIterator() behind the scenes, or when calling the iterator's next() method directly.

let hues = ["Heliotrope": 296, "Coral": 16, "Aquamarine": 156]
for (name, hueValue) in hues {
    print("The hue of \(name) is \(hueValue).")
}
// Prints "The hue of Heliotrope is 296."
// Prints "The hue of Coral is 16."
// Prints "The hue of Aquamarine is 156."

Returns: An iterator over the dictionary with elements of type (key: Key, value: Value).

Declaration

func makeIterator() -> DictionaryIterator<Dictionary.Key, Dictionary.Value>
func map(_:)

Returns an array containing the results of mapping the given closure over the sequence's elements.

In this example, map is used first to convert the names in the array to lowercase strings and then to count their characters.

let cast = ["Vivien", "Marlon", "Kim", "Karl"]
let lowercaseNames = cast.map { $0.lowercaseString }
// 'lowercaseNames' == ["vivien", "marlon", "kim", "karl"]
let letterCounts = cast.map { $0.characters.count }
// 'letterCounts' == [6, 6, 3, 4]

transform: A mapping closure. transform accepts an element of this sequence as its parameter and returns a transformed value of the same or of a different type. Returns: An array containing the transformed elements of this sequence.

Declaration

func map<T>(_ transform: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> T) rethrows -> [T]

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
@warn_unqualified_access func max(by:)

Returns the maximum element in the sequence, using the given predicate as the comparison between elements.

The predicate must be a strict weak ordering over the elements. That is, for any elements a, b, and c, the following conditions must hold:

  • areInIncreasingOrder(a, a) is always false. (Irreflexivity)
  • If areInIncreasingOrder(a, b) and areInIncreasingOrder(b, c) are both true, then areInIncreasingOrder(a, c) is also true. (Transitive comparability)
  • Two elements are incomparable if neither is ordered before the other according to the predicate. If a and b are incomparable, and b and c are incomparable, then a and c are also incomparable. (Transitive incomparability)

This example shows how to use the max(by:) method on a dictionary to find the key-value pair with the highest value.

let hues = ["Heliotrope": 296, "Coral": 16, "Aquamarine": 156]
let greatestHue = hues.max { a, b in a.value < b.value }
print(greatestHue)
// Prints "Optional(("Heliotrope", 296))"

areInIncreasingOrder: A predicate that returns true if its first argument should be ordered before its second argument; otherwise, false. Returns: The sequence's maximum element if the sequence is not empty; otherwise, nil.

See Also: max()

Declaration

@warn_unqualified_access func max(by areInIncreasingOrder: ((key: Key, value: Value), (key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> (key: Key, value: Value)?

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func min(by:)

Returns the minimum element in the sequence, using the given predicate as the comparison between elements.

The predicate must be a strict weak ordering over the elements. That is, for any elements a, b, and c, the following conditions must hold:

  • areInIncreasingOrder(a, a) is always false. (Irreflexivity)
  • If areInIncreasingOrder(a, b) and areInIncreasingOrder(b, c) are both true, then areInIncreasingOrder(a, c) is also true. (Transitive comparability)
  • Two elements are incomparable if neither is ordered before the other according to the predicate. If a and b are incomparable, and b and c are incomparable, then a and c are also incomparable. (Transitive incomparability)

This example shows how to use the min(by:) method on a dictionary to find the key-value pair with the lowest value.

let hues = ["Heliotrope": 296, "Coral": 16, "Aquamarine": 156]
let leastHue = hues.min { a, b in a.value < b.value }
print(leastHue)
// Prints "Optional(("Coral", 16))"

areInIncreasingOrder: A predicate that returns true if its first argument should be ordered before its second argument; otherwise, false. Returns: The sequence's minimum element, according to areInIncreasingOrder. If the sequence has no elements, returns nil.

See Also: min()

Declaration

func min(by areInIncreasingOrder: ((key: Key, value: Value), (key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> (key: Key, value: Value)?

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
mutating func popFirst()

Removes and returns the first key-value pair of the dictionary if the dictionary isn't empty.

The first element of the dictionary is not necessarily the first element added. Don't expect any particular ordering of key-value pairs.

Returns: The first key-value pair of the dictionary if the dictionary is not empty; otherwise, nil.

Complexity: Averages to O(1) over many calls to popFirst().

Declaration

mutating func popFirst() -> Dictionary.Element?
func prefix(_:)

Returns a subsequence, up to the specified maximum length, containing the initial elements of the collection.

If the maximum length exceeds the number of elements in the collection, the result contains all the elements in the collection.

let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.prefix(2))
// Prints "[1, 2]"
print(numbers.prefix(10))
// Prints "[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]"

maxLength: The maximum number of elements to return. maxLength must be greater than or equal to zero. Returns: A subsequence starting at the beginning of this collection with at most maxLength elements.

Declaration

func prefix(_ maxLength: Int) -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection
func prefix(through:)

Returns a subsequence from the start of the collection through the specified position.

The resulting subsequence includes the element at the position end. The following example searches for the index of the number 40 in an array of integers, and then prints the prefix of the array up to, and including, that index:

let numbers = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60]
if let i = numbers.index(of: 40) {
    print(numbers.prefix(through: i))
}
// Prints "[10, 20, 30, 40]"

end: The index of the last element to include in the resulting subsequence. end must be a valid index of the collection that is not equal to the endIndex property. Returns: A subsequence up to, and including, the end position.

Complexity: O(1) See Also: prefix(upTo:)

Declaration

func prefix(through position: Dictionary.Index) -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection
func prefix(upTo:)

Returns a subsequence from the start of the collection up to, but not including, the specified position.

The resulting subsequence does not include the element at the position end. The following example searches for the index of the number 40 in an array of integers, and then prints the prefix of the array up to, but not including, that index:

let numbers = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60]
if let i = numbers.index(of: 40) {
    print(numbers.prefix(upTo: i))
}
// Prints "[10, 20, 30]"

Passing the collection's starting index as the end parameter results in an empty subsequence.

print(numbers.prefix(upTo: numbers.startIndex))
// Prints "[]"

end: The "past the end" index of the resulting subsequence. end must be a valid index of the collection. Returns: A subsequence up to, but not including, the end position.

Complexity: O(1) See Also: prefix(through:)

Declaration

func prefix(upTo end: Dictionary.Index) -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection
func prefix(while:)

Returns a subsequence containing the initial elements until predicate returns false and skipping the remaining elements.

predicate: A closure that takes an element of the sequence as its argument and returns true if the element should be included or false if it should be excluded. Once the predicate returns false it will not be called again.

Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the collection.

Declaration

func prefix(while predicate: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection
func reduce(_:_:)

Returns the result of combining the elements of the sequence using the given closure.

Use the reduce(_:_:) method to produce a single value from the elements of an entire sequence. For example, you can use this method on an array of numbers to find their sum or product.

The nextPartialResult closure is called sequentially with an accumulating value initialized to initialResult and each element of the sequence. This example shows how to find the sum of an array of numbers.

let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4]
let numberSum = numbers.reduce(0, { x, y in
    x + y
})
// numberSum == 10

When numbers.reduce(_:_:) is called, the following steps occur:

  1. The nextPartialResult closure is called with initialResult---0 in this case---and the first element of numbers, returning the sum: 1.
  2. The closure is called again repeatedly with the previous call's return value and each element of the sequence.
  3. When the sequence is exhausted, the last value returned from the closure is returned to the caller.

If the sequence has no elements, nextPartialResult is never executed and initialResult is the result of the call to reduce(_:_:).

Parameters: initialResult: The value to use as the initial accumulating value. initialResult is passed to nextPartialResult the first time the closure is executed. nextPartialResult: A closure that combines an accumulating value and an element of the sequence into a new accumulating value, to be used in the next call of the nextPartialResult closure or returned to the caller. Returns: The final accumulated value. If the sequence has no elements, the result is initialResult.

Declaration

func reduce<Result>(_ initialResult: Result, _ nextPartialResult: (Result, (key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Result) rethrows -> Result

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
mutating func remove(at:)

Removes and returns the key-value pair at the specified index.

Calling this method invalidates any existing indices for use with this dictionary.

index: The position of the key-value pair to remove. index must be a valid index of the dictionary, and must not equal the dictionary's end index. Returns: The key-value pair that correspond to index.

Complexity: O(n), where n is the number of key-value pairs in the dictionary.

Declaration

mutating func remove(at index: Dictionary.Index) -> Dictionary.Element
mutating func removeAll(keepingCapacity:)

Removes all key-value pairs from the dictionary.

Calling this method invalidates all indices with respect to the dictionary.

keepCapacity: Whether the dictionary should keep its underlying buffer. If you pass true, the operation preserves the buffer capacity that the collection has, otherwise the underlying buffer is released. The default is false.

Complexity: O(n), where n is the number of key-value pairs in the dictionary.

Declaration

mutating func removeAll(keepingCapacity keepCapacity: Bool = default)
mutating func removeValue(forKey: Dictionary.Key)

Removes the given key and its associated value from the dictionary.

If the key is found in the dictionary, this method returns the key's associated value. On removal, this method invalidates all indices with respect to the dictionary.

var hues = ["Heliotrope": 296, "Coral": 16, "Aquamarine": 156]
if let value = hues.removeValue(forKey: "Coral") {
    print("The value \(value) was removed.")
}
// Prints "The value 16 was removed."

If the key isn't found in the dictionary, removeValue(forKey:) returns nil.

if let value = hues.removeValueForKey("Cerise") {
    print("The value \(value) was removed.")
} else {
    print("No value found for that key.")
}
// Prints "No value found for that key.""

key: The key to remove along with its associated value. Returns: The value that was removed, or nil if the key was not present in the dictionary.

Complexity: O(n), where n is the number of key-value pairs in the dictionary.

Declaration

mutating func removeValue(forKey key: Dictionary.Key) -> Dictionary.Value?
mutating func removeValue<ConcreteKey where ConcreteKey : Hashable>(forKey: ConcreteKey)

Declaration

mutating func removeValue<ConcreteKey where ConcreteKey : Hashable>(forKey key: ConcreteKey) -> Dictionary.Value?
func reversed()

Returns an array containing the elements of this sequence in reverse order.

The sequence must be finite.

Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the sequence.

Returns: An array containing the elements of this sequence in reverse order.

Declaration

func reversed() -> [(key: Key, value: Value)]

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func sorted(by:)

Returns the elements of the sequence, sorted using the given predicate as the comparison between elements.

When you want to sort a sequence of elements that don't conform to the Comparable protocol, pass a predicate to this method that returns true when the first element passed should be ordered before the second. The elements of the resulting array are ordered according to the given predicate.

The predicate must be a strict weak ordering over the elements. That is, for any elements a, b, and c, the following conditions must hold:

  • areInIncreasingOrder(a, a) is always false. (Irreflexivity)
  • If areInIncreasingOrder(a, b) and areInIncreasingOrder(b, c) are both true, then areInIncreasingOrder(a, c) is also true. (Transitive comparability)
  • Two elements are incomparable if neither is ordered before the other according to the predicate. If a and b are incomparable, and b and c are incomparable, then a and c are also incomparable. (Transitive incomparability)

The sorting algorithm is not stable. A nonstable sort may change the relative order of elements for which areInIncreasingOrder does not establish an order.

In the following example, the predicate provides an ordering for an array of a custom HTTPResponse type. The predicate orders errors before successes and sorts the error responses by their error code.

enum HTTPResponse {
    case ok
    case error(Int)
}

let responses: [HTTPResponse] = [.error(500), .ok, .ok, .error(404), .error(403)]
let sortedResponses = responses.sorted {
    switch ($0, $1) {
    // Order errors by code
    case let (.error(aCode), .error(bCode)):
        return aCode < bCode

    // All successes are equivalent, so none is before any other
    case (.ok, .ok): return false

    // Order errors before successes
    case (.error, .ok): return true
    case (.ok, .error): return false
    }
}
print(sortedResponses)
// Prints "[.error(403), .error(404), .error(500), .ok, .ok]"

You also use this method to sort elements that conform to the Comparable protocol in descending order. To sort your sequence in descending order, pass the greater-than operator (>) as the areInIncreasingOrder parameter.

let students: Set = ["Kofi", "Abena", "Peter", "Kweku", "Akosua"]
let descendingStudents = students.sorted(by: >)
print(descendingStudents)
// Prints "["Peter", "Kweku", "Kofi", "Akosua", "Abena"]"

Calling the related sorted() method is equivalent to calling this method and passing the less-than operator (<) as the predicate.

print(students.sorted())
// Prints "["Abena", "Akosua", "Kofi", "Kweku", "Peter"]"
print(students.sorted(by: <))
// Prints "["Abena", "Akosua", "Kofi", "Kweku", "Peter"]"

areInIncreasingOrder: A predicate that returns true if its first argument should be ordered before its second argument; otherwise, false. Returns: A sorted array of the sequence's elements.

See Also: sorted()

Declaration

func sorted(by areInIncreasingOrder: ((key: Key, value: Value), (key: Key, value: Value)) -> Bool) -> [(key: Key, value: Value)]

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func split(_:omittingEmptySubsequences:whereSeparator:)

Returns the longest possible subsequences of the collection, in order, that don't contain elements satisfying the given predicate.

The resulting array consists of at most maxSplits + 1 subsequences. Elements that are used to split the sequence are not returned as part of any subsequence.

The following examples show the effects of the maxSplits and omittingEmptySubsequences parameters when splitting a string using a closure that matches spaces. The first use of split returns each word that was originally separated by one or more spaces.

let line = "BLANCHE:   I don't want realism. I want magic!"
print(line.characters.split(whereSeparator: { $0 == " " })
                     .map(String.init))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", "I", "don\'t", "want", "realism.", "I", "want", "magic!"]"

The second example passes 1 for the maxSplits parameter, so the original string is split just once, into two new strings.

print(
    line.characters.split(
        maxSplits: 1, whereSeparator: { $0 == " " }
        ).map(String.init))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", "  I don\'t want realism. I want magic!"]"

The final example passes false for the omittingEmptySubsequences parameter, so the returned array contains empty strings where spaces were repeated.

print(line.characters.split(omittingEmptySubsequences: false, whereSeparator: { $0 == " " })
                      .map(String.init))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", "", "", "I", "don\'t", "want", "realism.", "I", "want", "magic!"]"

Parameters: maxSplits: The maximum number of times to split the collection, or one less than the number of subsequences to return. If maxSplits + 1 subsequences are returned, the last one is a suffix of the original collection containing the remaining elements. maxSplits must be greater than or equal to zero. The default value is Int.max. omittingEmptySubsequences: If false, an empty subsequence is returned in the result for each pair of consecutive elements satisfying the isSeparator predicate and for each element at the start or end of the collection satisfying the isSeparator predicate. The default value is true. isSeparator: A closure that takes an element as an argument and returns a Boolean value indicating whether the collection should be split at that element. Returns: An array of subsequences, split from this collection's elements.

Declaration

func split(maxSplits: Int = default, omittingEmptySubsequences: Bool = default, whereSeparator isSeparator: ((key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> [Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>]

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func starts(with:by:)

Returns a Boolean value indicating whether the initial elements of the sequence are equivalent to the elements in another sequence, using the given predicate as the equivalence test.

The predicate must be a equivalence relation over the elements. That is, for any elements a, b, and c, the following conditions must hold:

  • areEquivalent(a, a) is always true. (Reflexivity)
  • areEquivalent(a, b) implies areEquivalent(b, a). (Symmetry)
  • If areEquivalent(a, b) and areEquivalent(b, c) are both true, then areEquivalent(a, c) is also true. (Transitivity)

Parameters: possiblePrefix: A sequence to compare to this sequence. areEquivalent: A predicate that returns true if its two arguments are equivalent; otherwise, false. Returns: true if the initial elements of the sequence are equivalent to the elements of possiblePrefix; otherwise, false. If possiblePrefix has no elements, the return value is true.

See Also: starts(with:)

Declaration

func starts<PossiblePrefix where PossiblePrefix : Sequence, (key: Key, value: Value) == PossiblePrefix.Iterator.Element>(with possiblePrefix: PossiblePrefix, by areEquivalent: ((key: Key, value: Value), (key: Key, value: Value)) throws -> Bool) rethrows -> Bool

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func suffix(_:)

Returns a subsequence, up to the given maximum length, containing the final elements of the collection.

If the maximum length exceeds the number of elements in the collection, the result contains all the elements in the collection.

let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.suffix(2))
// Prints "[4, 5]"
print(numbers.suffix(10))
// Prints "[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]"

maxLength: The maximum number of elements to return. The value of maxLength must be greater than or equal to zero. Returns: A subsequence terminating at the end of the collection with at most maxLength elements.

Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the collection.

Declaration

func suffix(_ maxLength: Int) -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection, Sequence
func suffix(from:)

Returns a subsequence from the specified position to the end of the collection.

The following example searches for the index of the number 40 in an array of integers, and then prints the suffix of the array starting at that index:

let numbers = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60]
if let i = numbers.index(of: 40) {
    print(numbers.suffix(from: i))
}
// Prints "[40, 50, 60]"

Passing the collection's endIndex as the start parameter results in an empty subsequence.

print(numbers.suffix(from: numbers.endIndex))
// Prints "[]"

start: The index at which to start the resulting subsequence. start must be a valid index of the collection. Returns: A subsequence starting at the start position.

Complexity: O(1)

Declaration

func suffix(from start: Dictionary.Index) -> Slice<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

Declared In

Collection
mutating func updateValue(_: Dictionary.Value, forKey: Dictionary.Key)

Updates the value stored in the dictionary for the given key, or adds a new key-value pair if the key does not exist.

Use this method instead of key-based subscripting when you need to know whether the new value supplants the value of an existing key. If the value of an existing key is updated, updateValue(_:forKey:) returns the original value.

var hues = ["Heliotrope": 296, "Coral": 16, "Aquamarine": 156]

if let oldValue = hues.updateValue(18, forKey: "Coral") {
    print("The old value of \(oldValue) was replaced with a new one.")
}
// Prints "The old value of 16 was replaced with a new one."

If the given key is not present in the dictionary, this method adds the key-value pair and returns nil.

if let oldValue = hues.updateValue(330, forKey: "Cerise") {
    print("The old value of \(oldValue) was replaced with a new one.")
} else {
    print("No value was found in the dictionary for that key.")
}
// Prints "No value was found in the dictionary for that key."

Parameters: value: The new value to add to the dictionary. key: The key to associate with value. If key already exists in the dictionary, value replaces the existing associated value. If key isn't already a key of the dictionary, the (key, value) pair is added. Returns: The value that was replaced, or nil if a new key-value pair was added.

Declaration

mutating func updateValue(_ value: Dictionary.Value, forKey key: Dictionary.Key) -> Dictionary.Value?
mutating func updateValue<ConcreteKey where ConcreteKey : Hashable>(_: Dictionary.Value, forKey: ConcreteKey)

Declaration

mutating func updateValue<ConcreteKey where ConcreteKey : Hashable>(_ value: Dictionary.Value, forKey key: ConcreteKey) -> Dictionary.Value?

Conditionally Inherited Items

The initializers, methods, and properties listed below may be available on this type under certain conditions (such as methods that are available on Array when its elements are Equatable) or may not ever be available if that determination is beyond SwiftDoc.org's capabilities. Please open an issue on GitHub if you see something out of place!

Where Indices == DefaultIndices

var indices: DefaultIndices<Dictionary<Key, Value>>

The indices that are valid for subscripting the collection, in ascending order.

A collection's indices property can hold a strong reference to the collection itself, causing the collection to be non-uniquely referenced. If you mutate the collection while iterating over its indices, a strong reference can cause an unexpected copy of the collection. To avoid the unexpected copy, use the index(after:) method starting with startIndex to produce indices instead.

var c = MyFancyCollection([10, 20, 30, 40, 50])
var i = c.startIndex
while i != c.endIndex {
    c[i] /= 5
    i = c.index(after: i)
}
// c == MyFancyCollection([2, 4, 6, 8, 10])

Declaration

var indices: DefaultIndices<Dictionary<Key, Value>> { get }

Declared In

Collection