struct Set<Element>
Inheritance 
Collection, CustomDebugStringConvertible, CustomReflectable, CustomStringConvertible, Decodable, Encodable, Equatable, ExpressibleByArrayLiteral, Hashable, Sequence, SetAlgebra
View Protocol Hierarchy →


Nested Types  Set.Index 
Import  import Swift 
Initializers
Creates an empty set.
This is equivalent to initializing with an empty array literal. For example:
var emptySet = Set<Int>()
print(emptySet.isEmpty)
// Prints "true"
emptySet = []
print(emptySet.isEmpty)
// Prints "true"
Declaration
init()
Creates a new set from a finite sequence of items.
Use this initializer to create a new set from an existing sequence, for example, an array or a range.
let validIndices = Set(0..<7).subtracting([2, 4, 5])
print(validIndices)
// Prints "[6, 0, 1, 3]"
This initializer can also be used to restore set methods after performing
sequence operations such as filter(_:)
or map(_:)
on a set. For
example, after filtering a set of prime numbers to remove any below 10,
you can create a new set by using this initializer.
let primes: Set = [2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23]
let laterPrimes = Set(primes.lazy.filter { $0 > 10 })
print(laterPrimes)
// Prints "[17, 19, 23, 11, 13]"
sequence
: The elements to use as members of the new set.
Declaration
init<Source>(_ sequence: Source)
Declared In
Set
, SetAlgebra
Creates a set containing the elements of the given array literal.
Do not call this initializer directly. It is used by the compiler when you use an array literal. Instead, create a new set using an array literal as its value by enclosing a commaseparated list of values in square brackets. You can use an array literal anywhere a set is expected by the type context.
Here, a set of strings is created from an array literal holding only strings.
let ingredients: Set = ["cocoa beans", "sugar", "cocoa butter", "salt"]
if ingredients.isSuperset(of: ["sugar", "salt"]) {
print("Whatever it is, it's bound to be delicious!")
}
// Prints "Whatever it is, it's bound to be delicious!"
elements
: A variadic list of elements of the new set.
Declaration
init(arrayLiteral elements: Set<Element>.Element...)
Creates a new set by decoding from the given decoder.
This initializer throws an error if reading from the decoder fails, or if the data read is corrupted or otherwise invalid.
decoder
: The decoder to read data from.
Declaration
init(from decoder: Decoder)
Creates an empty set with preallocated space for at least the specified number of elements.
Use this initializer to avoid intermediate reallocations of a set's storage buffer when you know how many elements you'll insert into the set after creation.
minimumCapacity
: The minimum number of elements that the
newly created set should be able to store without reallocating its
storage buffer.
Declaration
init(minimumCapacity: Int)
Instance Variables
The total number of elements that the set can contain without allocating new storage.
Declaration
var capacity: Int { get }
The number of elements in the set.
Complexity: O(1).
Declaration
var count: Int { get }
Declared In
Set
, Collection
A mirror that reflects the set.
Declaration
var customMirror: Mirror { get }
A string that represents the contents of the set, suitable for debugging.
Declaration
var debugDescription: String { get }
A string that represents the contents of the set.
Declaration
var description: String { get }
The "past the end" position for the setthat is, the position one greater than the last valid subscript argument.
If the set is empty, endIndex
is equal to startIndex
.
Declaration
var endIndex: Set<Element>.Index { get }
The first element of the set.
The first element of the set is not necessarily the first element added to the set. Don't expect any particular ordering of set elements.
If the set is empty, the value of this property is nil
.
Declaration
var first: Element? { get }
The hash value for the set.
Two sets that are equal will always have equal hash values.
Hash values are not guaranteed to be equal across different executions of your program. Do not save hash values to use during a future execution.
Declaration
var hashValue: Int { get }
A Boolean value that indicates whether the set is empty.
Declaration
var isEmpty: Bool { get }
Declared In
Set
, Collection
, SetAlgebra
A view onto this collection that provides lazy implementations of
normally eager operations, such as map
and filter
.
Use the lazy
property when chaining operations to prevent
intermediate operations from allocating storage, or when you only
need a part of the final collection to avoid unnecessary computation.
Declaration
var lazy: LazyCollection<Set<Element>> { get }
Declared In
Collection
The starting position for iterating members of the set.
If the set is empty, startIndex
is equal to endIndex
.
Declaration
var startIndex: Set<Element>.Index { get }
A value less than or equal to the number of elements in the collection.
Complexity: O(1) if the collection conforms to
RandomAccessCollection
; otherwise, O(n), where n is the length
of the collection.
Declaration
var underestimatedCount: Int { get }
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Subscripts
Declaration
subscript(x: (UnboundedRange_) > ()) > Set<Element>.SubSequence { get }
Declared In
Collection
Accesses the member at the given position.
Declaration
subscript(position: Set<Element>.Index) > Element { get }
Accesses the contiguous subrange of the collection's elements specified by a range expression.
The range expression is converted to a concrete subrange relative to this
collection. For example, using a PartialRangeFrom
range expression
with an array accesses the subrange from the start of the range
expression until the end of the array.
let streets = ["Adams", "Bryant", "Channing", "Douglas", "Evarts"]
let streetsSlice = streets[2...]
print(streetsSlice)
// ["Channing", "Douglas", "Evarts"]
The accessed slice uses the same indices for the same elements as the
original collection uses. This example searches streetsSlice
for one
of the strings in the slice, and then uses that index in the original
array.
let index = streetsSlice.firstIndex(of: "Evarts") // 4
print(streets[index!])
// "Evarts"
Always use the slice's startIndex
property instead of assuming that its
indices start at a particular value. Attempting to access an element by
using an index outside the bounds of the slice's indices may result in a
runtime error, even if that index is valid for the original collection.
print(streetsSlice.startIndex)
// 2
print(streetsSlice[2])
// "Channing"
print(streetsSlice[0])
// error: Index out of bounds
bounds
: A range of the collection's indices. The bounds of
the range must be valid indices of the collection.
Complexity: O(1)
Declaration
subscript<R>(r: R) > Set<Element>.SubSequence where R : RangeExpression, Set<Element>.Index == R.Bound { get }
Declared In
Collection
Instance Methods
Returns a Boolean value indicating whether every element of a sequence satisfies a given predicate.
predicate
: A closure that takes an element of the sequence
as its argument and returns a Boolean value that indicates whether
the passed element satisfies a condition.
Returns: true
if the sequence contains only elements that satisfy
predicate
; otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func allSatisfy(_ predicate: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Bool
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns an array containing the nonnil
results of calling the given
transformation with each element of this sequence.
Use this method to receive an array of nonoptional values when your transformation produces an optional value.
In this example, note the difference in the result of using map
and
compactMap
with a transformation that returns an optional Int
value.
let possibleNumbers = ["1", "2", "three", "///4///", "5"]
let mapped: [Int?] = possibleNumbers.map { str in Int(str) }
// [1, 2, nil, nil, 5]
let compactMapped: [Int] = possibleNumbers.compactMap { str in Int(str) }
// [1, 2, 5]
transform
: A closure that accepts an element of this
sequence as its argument and returns an optional value.
Returns: An array of the nonnil
results of calling transform
with each element of the sequence.
Complexity: O(m + n), where m is the length of this sequence and n is the length of the result.
Declaration
func compactMap<ElementOfResult>(_ transform: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > ElementOfResult?) rethrows > [ElementOfResult]
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the given element exists in the set.
This example uses the contains(_:)
method to test whether an integer is
a member of a set of prime numbers.
let primes: Set = [2, 3, 5, 7]
let x = 5
if primes.contains(x) {
print("\(x) is prime!")
} else {
print("\(x). Not prime.")
}
// Prints "5 is prime!"
member
: An element to look for in the set.
Returns: true
if member
exists in the set; otherwise, false
.
Complexity: O(1)
Declaration
func contains(_ member: Set<Element>.Element) > Bool
Returns a Boolean value indicating whether the sequence contains an element that satisfies the given predicate.
You can use the predicate to check for an element of a type that
doesn't conform to the Equatable
protocol, such as the
HTTPResponse
enumeration in this example.
enum HTTPResponse {
case ok
case error(Int)
}
let lastThreeResponses: [HTTPResponse] = [.ok, .ok, .error(404)]
let hadError = lastThreeResponses.contains { element in
if case .error = element {
return true
} else {
return false
}
}
// 'hadError' == true
Alternatively, a predicate can be satisfied by a range of Equatable
elements or a general condition. This example shows how you can check an
array for an expense greater than $100.
let expenses = [21.37, 55.21, 9.32, 10.18, 388.77, 11.41]
let hasBigPurchase = expenses.contains { $0 > 100 }
// 'hasBigPurchase' == true
predicate
: A closure that takes an element of the sequence
as its argument and returns a Boolean value that indicates whether
the passed element represents a match.
Returns: true
if the sequence contains an element that satisfies
predicate
; otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func contains(where predicate: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Bool
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the distance between two indices.
Unless the collection conforms to the BidirectionalCollection
protocol,
start
must be less than or equal to end
.
Parameters:
start: A valid index of the collection.
end: Another valid index of the collection. If end
is equal to
start
, the result is zero.
Returns: The distance between start
and end
. The result can be
negative only if the collection conforms to the
BidirectionalCollection
protocol.
Complexity: O(1) if the collection conforms to
RandomAccessCollection
; otherwise, O(n), where n is the
resulting distance.
Declaration
func distance(from start: Set<Element>.Index, to end: Set<Element>.Index) > Int
Declared In
Collection
Deprecated: all index distances are now of type Int.
Declaration
func distance<T>(from start: Set<Element>.Index, to end: Set<Element>.Index) > T where T : BinaryInteger
Declared In
Collection
Returns a subsequence by skipping elements while predicate
returns
true
and returning the remaining elements.
predicate
: A closure that takes an element of the
sequence as its argument and returns true
if the element should
be skipped or false
if it should be included. Once the predicate
returns false
it will not be called again.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the collection.
Declaration
func drop(while predicate: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
Returns a subsequence containing all but the first element of the sequence.
The following example drops the first element from an array of integers.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.dropFirst())
// Prints "[2, 3, 4, 5]"
If the sequence has no elements, the result is an empty subsequence.
let empty: [Int] = []
print(empty.dropFirst())
// Prints "[]"
Returns: A subsequence starting after the first element of the sequence.
Complexity: O(1)
Declaration
func dropFirst() > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a subsequence containing all but the given number of initial elements.
If the number of elements to drop exceeds the number of elements in the collection, the result is an empty subsequence.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.dropFirst(2))
// Prints "[3, 4, 5]"
print(numbers.dropFirst(10))
// Prints "[]"
n
: The number of elements to drop from the beginning of
the collection. n
must be greater than or equal to zero.
Returns: A subsequence starting after the specified number of
elements.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the number of elements to drop from the beginning of the collection.
Declaration
func dropFirst(_ n: Int) > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
Returns a subsequence containing all but the last element of the sequence.
The sequence must be finite.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.dropLast())
// Prints "[1, 2, 3, 4]"
If the sequence has no elements, the result is an empty subsequence.
let empty: [Int] = []
print(empty.dropLast())
// Prints "[]"
Returns: A subsequence leaving off the last element of the sequence.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the sequence.
Declaration
func dropLast() > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a subsequence containing all but the specified number of final elements.
If the number of elements to drop exceeds the number of elements in the collection, the result is an empty subsequence.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.dropLast(2))
// Prints "[1, 2, 3]"
print(numbers.dropLast(10))
// Prints "[]"
n
: The number of elements to drop off the end of the
collection. n
must be greater than or equal to zero.
Returns: A subsequence that leaves off the specified number of elements
at the end.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the collection.
Declaration
func dropLast(_ n: Int) > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
Returns a Boolean value indicating whether this sequence and another sequence contain equivalent elements in the same order, using the given predicate as the equivalence test.
At least one of the sequences must be finite.
The predicate must be a equivalence relation over the elements. That
is, for any elements a
, b
, and c
, the following conditions must
hold:
areEquivalent(a, a)
is alwaystrue
. (Reflexivity)areEquivalent(a, b)
impliesareEquivalent(b, a)
. (Symmetry) If
areEquivalent(a, b)
andareEquivalent(b, c)
are bothtrue
, thenareEquivalent(a, c)
is alsotrue
. (Transitivity)
Parameters:
other: A sequence to compare to this sequence.
areEquivalent: A predicate that returns true
if its two arguments
are equivalent; otherwise, false
.
Returns: true
if this sequence and other
contain equivalent items,
using areEquivalent
as the equivalence test; otherwise, false.
Declaration
func elementsEqual<OtherSequence>(_ other: OtherSequence, by areEquivalent: (Set<Element>.Element, OtherSequence.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Bool where OtherSequence : Sequence
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Encodes the elements of this set into the given encoder in an unkeyed container.
This function throws an error if any values are invalid for the given encoder's format.
encoder
: The encoder to write data to.
Declaration
func encode(to encoder: Encoder) throws
Returns a sequence of pairs (n, x), where n represents a consecutive integer starting at zero and x represents an element of the sequence.
This example enumerates the characters of the string "Swift" and prints each character along with its place in the string.
for (n, c) in "Swift".enumerated() {
print("\(n): '\(c)'")
}
// Prints "0: 'S'"
// Prints "1: 'w'"
// Prints "2: 'i'"
// Prints "3: 'f'"
// Prints "4: 't'"
When you enumerate a collection, the integer part of each pair is a counter
for the enumeration, but is not necessarily the index of the paired value.
These counters can be used as indices only in instances of zerobased,
integerindexed collections, such as Array
and ContiguousArray
. For
other collections the counters may be out of range or of the wrong type
to use as an index. To iterate over the elements of a collection with its
indices, use the zip(_:_:)
function.
This example iterates over the indices and elements of a set, building a list consisting of indices of names with five or fewer letters.
let names: Set = ["Sofia", "Camilla", "Martina", "Mateo", "Nicolás"]
var shorterIndices: [SetIndex<String>] = []
for (i, name) in zip(names.indices, names) {
if name.count <= 5 {
shorterIndices.append(i)
}
}
Now that the shorterIndices
array holds the indices of the shorter
names in the names
set, you can use those indices to access elements in
the set.
for i in shorterIndices {
print(names[i])
}
// Prints "Sofia"
// Prints "Mateo"
Returns: A sequence of pairs enumerating the sequence.
Declaration
func enumerated() > EnumeratedSequence<Set<Element>>
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a new set containing the elements of the set that satisfy the given predicate.
In this example, filter(_:)
is used to include only names shorter than
five characters.
let cast: Set = ["Vivien", "Marlon", "Kim", "Karl"]
let shortNames = cast.filter { $0.count < 5 }
shortNames.isSubset(of: cast)
// true
shortNames.contains("Vivien")
// false
isIncluded
: A closure that takes an element as its argument
and returns a Boolean value indicating whether the element should be
included in the returned set.
Returns: A set of the elements that isIncluded
allows.
Declaration
func filter(_ isIncluded: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Set<Element>
Declared In
Set
, Collection
, Sequence
Returns the first element of the sequence that satisfies the given predicate.
The following example uses the first(where:)
method to find the first
negative number in an array of integers:
let numbers = [3, 7, 4, 2, 9, 6, 10, 1]
if let firstNegative = numbers.first(where: { $0 < 0 }) {
print("The first negative number is \(firstNegative).")
}
// Prints "The first negative number is 2."
predicate
: A closure that takes an element of the sequence as
its argument and returns a Boolean value indicating whether the
element is a match.
Returns: The first element of the sequence that satisfies predicate
,
or nil
if there is no element that satisfies predicate
.
Declaration
func first(where predicate: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Set<Element>.Element?
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the index of the given element in the set, or nil
if the
element is not a member of the set.
member
: An element to search for in the set.
Returns: The index of member
if it exists in the set; otherwise,
nil
.
Complexity: O(1)
Declaration
func firstIndex(of member: Set<Element>.Element) > Set<Element>.Index?
Returns the first index in which an element of the collection satisfies the given predicate.
You can use the predicate to find an element of a type that doesn't
conform to the Equatable
protocol or to find an element that matches
particular criteria. Here's an example that finds a student name that
begins with the letter "A":
let students = ["Kofi", "Abena", "Peter", "Kweku", "Akosua"]
if let i = students.firstIndex(where: { $0.hasPrefix("A") }) {
print("\(students[i]) starts with 'A'!")
}
// Prints "Abena starts with 'A'!"
predicate
: A closure that takes an element as its argument
and returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the passed element
represents a match.
Returns: The index of the first element for which predicate
returns
true
. If no elements in the collection satisfy the given predicate,
returns nil
.
Declaration
func firstIndex(where predicate: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Set<Element>.Index?
Declared In
Collection
Declaration
func flatMap(_ transform: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > String?) rethrows > [String]
Declared In
Collection
Returns an array containing the nonnil
results of calling the given
transformation with each element of this sequence.
Use this method to receive an array of nonoptional values when your transformation produces an optional value.
In this example, note the difference in the result of using map
and
flatMap
with a transformation that returns an optional Int
value.
let possibleNumbers = ["1", "2", "three", "///4///", "5"]
let mapped: [Int?] = possibleNumbers.map { str in Int(str) }
// [1, 2, nil, nil, 5]
let flatMapped: [Int] = possibleNumbers.flatMap { str in Int(str) }
// [1, 2, 5]
transform
: A closure that accepts an element of this
sequence as its argument and returns an optional value.
Returns: An array of the nonnil
results of calling transform
with each element of the sequence.
Complexity: O(m + n), where m is the length of this sequence and n is the length of the result.
Declaration
func flatMap<ElementOfResult>(_ transform: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > ElementOfResult?) rethrows > [ElementOfResult]
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns an array containing the concatenated results of calling the given transformation with each element of this sequence.
Use this method to receive a singlelevel collection when your transformation produces a sequence or collection for each element.
In this example, note the difference in the result of using map
and
flatMap
with a transformation that returns an array.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4]
let mapped = numbers.map { Array(repeating: $0, count: $0) }
// [[1], [2, 2], [3, 3, 3], [4, 4, 4, 4]]
let flatMapped = numbers.flatMap { Array(repeating: $0, count: $0) }
// [1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4]
In fact, s.flatMap(transform)
is equivalent to
Array(s.map(transform).joined())
.
transform
: A closure that accepts an element of this
sequence as its argument and returns a sequence or collection.
Returns: The resulting flattened array.
Complexity: O(m + n), where m is the length of this sequence and n is the length of the result.
Declaration
func flatMap<SegmentOfResult>(_ transform: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > SegmentOfResult) rethrows > [SegmentOfResult.Element] where SegmentOfResult : Sequence
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Calls the given closure on each element in the sequence in the same order
as a for
in
loop.
The two loops in the following example produce the same output:
let numberWords = ["one", "two", "three"]
for word in numberWords {
print(word)
}
// Prints "one"
// Prints "two"
// Prints "three"
numberWords.forEach { word in
print(word)
}
// Same as above
Using the forEach
method is distinct from a for
in
loop in two
important ways:
 You cannot use a
break
orcontinue
statement to exit the current call of thebody
closure or skip subsequent calls.  Using the
return
statement in thebody
closure will exit only from the current call tobody
, not from any outer scope, and won't skip subsequent calls.
body
: A closure that takes an element of the sequence as a
parameter.
Declaration
func forEach(_ body: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Void) rethrows
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Offsets the given index by the specified distance.
The value passed as n
must not offset i
beyond the bounds of the
collection.
Parameters:
i: A valid index of the collection.
n: The distance to offset i
. n
must not be negative unless the
collection conforms to the BidirectionalCollection
protocol.
Complexity: O(1) if the collection conforms to
RandomAccessCollection
; otherwise, O(n), where n is the absolute
value of n
.
Declaration
func formIndex(_ i: inout Set<Element>.Index, offsetBy n: Int)
Declared In
Collection
Deprecated: all index distances are now of type Int.
Declaration
func formIndex<T>(_ i: inout Set<Element>.Index, offsetBy n: T)
Declared In
Collection
Offsets the given index by the specified distance, or so that it equals the given limiting index.
The value passed as n
must not offset i
beyond the bounds of the
collection, unless the index passed as limit
prevents offsetting
beyond those bounds.
Parameters:
i: A valid index of the collection.
n: The distance to offset i
. n
must not be negative unless the
collection conforms to the BidirectionalCollection
protocol.
limit: A valid index of the collection to use as a limit. If n > 0
,
a limit that is less than i
has no effect. Likewise, if n < 0
, a
limit that is greater than i
has no effect.
Returns: true
if i
has been offset by exactly n
steps without
going beyond limit
; otherwise, false
. When the return value is
false
, the value of i
is equal to limit
.
Complexity: O(1) if the collection conforms to
RandomAccessCollection
; otherwise, O(n), where n is the absolute
value of n
.
Declaration
func formIndex(_ i: inout Set<Element>.Index, offsetBy n: Int, limitedBy limit: Set<Element>.Index) > Bool
Declared In
Collection
Deprecated: all index distances are now of type Int.
Declaration
func formIndex<T>(_ i: inout Set<Element>.Index, offsetBy n: T, limitedBy limit: Set<Element>.Index) > Bool where T : BinaryInteger
Declared In
Collection
Replaces the given index with its successor.
i
: A valid index of the collection. i
must be less than
endIndex
.
Declaration
func formIndex(after i: inout Set<Element>.Index)
Declared In
Collection
Removes the elements of the set that aren't also in the given sequence.
In the following example, the elements of the employees
set that are
not also members of the neighbors
set are removed. In particular, the
names "Alicia"
, "Chris"
, and "Diana"
are removed.
var employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani", "Greta"]
employees.formIntersection(neighbors)
print(employees)
// Prints "["Bethany", "Eric"]"
other
: A sequence of elements. other
must be finite.
Declaration
mutating func formIntersection<S>(_ other: S)
Removes the elements of the set that are also in the given sequence and adds the members of the sequence that are not already in the set.
In the following example, the elements of the employees
set that are
also members of neighbors
are removed from employees
, while the
elements of neighbors
that are not members of employees
are added to
employees
. In particular, the names "Alicia"
, "Chris"
, and
"Diana"
are removed from employees
while the names "Forlani"
and
"Greta"
are added.
var employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors: Set = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani", "Greta"]
employees.formSymmetricDifference(neighbors)
print(employees)
// Prints "["Diana", "Chris", "Forlani", "Alicia", "Greta"]"
other
: Another set.
Declaration
mutating func formSymmetricDifference(_ other: Set<Set<Element>.Element>)
Replace this set with the elements contained in this set or the given set, but not both.
In the following example, the elements of the employees
set that are
also members of neighbors
are removed from employees
, while the
elements of neighbors
that are not members of employees
are added to
employees
. In particular, the names "Bethany"
and "Eric"
are
removed from employees
while the name "Forlani"
is added.
var employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani"]
employees.formSymmetricDifference(neighbors)
print(employees)
// Prints "["Diana", "Forlani", "Alicia"]"
other
: A sequence of elements. other
must be finite.
Declaration
mutating func formSymmetricDifference<S>(_ other: S)
Inserts the elements of the given sequence into the set.
If the set already contains one or more elements that are also in
other
, the existing members are kept. If other
contains multiple
instances of equivalent elements, only the first instance is kept.
var attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
let visitors = ["Diana", "Marcia", "Nathaniel"]
attendees.formUnion(visitors)
print(attendees)
// Prints "["Diana", "Nathaniel", "Bethany", "Alicia", "Marcia"]"
other
: A sequence of elements. other
must be finite.
Declaration
mutating func formUnion<S>(_ other: S)
Hashes the essential components of this value by feeding them into the given hasher.
hasher
: The hasher to use when combining the components
of this instance.
Declaration
func hash(into hasher: inout Hasher)
Returns an index that is the specified distance from the given index.
The following example obtains an index advanced four positions from a string's starting index and then prints the character at that position.
let s = "Swift"
let i = s.index(s.startIndex, offsetBy: 4)
print(s[i])
// Prints "t"
The value passed as n
must not offset i
beyond the bounds of the
collection.
Parameters:
i: A valid index of the collection.
n: The distance to offset i
. n
must not be negative unless the
collection conforms to the BidirectionalCollection
protocol.
Returns: An index offset by n
from the index i
. If n
is positive,
this is the same value as the result of n
calls to index(after:)
.
If n
is negative, this is the same value as the result of n
calls
to index(before:)
.
Complexity: O(1) if the collection conforms to
RandomAccessCollection
; otherwise, O(n), where n is the absolute
value of n
.
Declaration
func index(_ i: Set<Element>.Index, offsetBy n: Int) > Set<Element>.Index
Declared In
Collection
Deprecated: all index distances are now of type Int.
Declaration
func index<T>(_ i: Set<Element>.Index, offsetBy n: T) > Set<Element>.Index where T : BinaryInteger
Declared In
Collection
Returns an index that is the specified distance from the given index, unless that distance is beyond a given limiting index.
The following example obtains an index advanced four positions from a
string's starting index and then prints the character at that position.
The operation doesn't require going beyond the limiting s.endIndex
value, so it succeeds.
let s = "Swift"
if let i = s.index(s.startIndex, offsetBy: 4, limitedBy: s.endIndex) {
print(s[i])
}
// Prints "t"
The next example attempts to retrieve an index six positions from
s.startIndex
but fails, because that distance is beyond the index
passed as limit
.
let j = s.index(s.startIndex, offsetBy: 6, limitedBy: s.endIndex)
print(j)
// Prints "nil"
The value passed as n
must not offset i
beyond the bounds of the
collection, unless the index passed as limit
prevents offsetting
beyond those bounds.
Parameters:
i: A valid index of the collection.
n: The distance to offset i
. n
must not be negative unless the
collection conforms to the BidirectionalCollection
protocol.
limit: A valid index of the collection to use as a limit. If n > 0
,
a limit that is less than i
has no effect. Likewise, if n < 0
, a
limit that is greater than i
has no effect.
Returns: An index offset by n
from the index i
, unless that index
would be beyond limit
in the direction of movement. In that case,
the method returns nil
.
Complexity: O(1) if the collection conforms to
RandomAccessCollection
; otherwise, O(n), where n is the absolute
value of n
.
Declaration
func index(_ i: Set<Element>.Index, offsetBy n: Int, limitedBy limit: Set<Element>.Index) > Set<Element>.Index?
Declared In
Collection
Deprecated: all index distances are now of type Int.
Declaration
func index<T>(_ i: Set<Element>.Index, offsetBy n: T, limitedBy limit: Set<Element>.Index) > Set<Element>.Index? where T : BinaryInteger
Declared In
Collection
Returns the position immediately after the given index.
The successor of an index must be well defined. For an index i
into a
collection c
, calling c.index(after: i)
returns the same index every
time.
i
: A valid index of the collection. i
must be less than
endIndex
.
Returns: The index value immediately after i
.
Declaration
func index(after i: Set<Element>.Index) > Set<Element>.Index
Inserts the given element in the set if it is not already present.
If an element equal to newMember
is already contained in the set, this
method has no effect. In the following example, a new element is
inserted into classDays
, a set of days of the week. When an existing
element is inserted, the classDays
set does not change.
enum DayOfTheWeek: Int {
case sunday, monday, tuesday, wednesday, thursday,
friday, saturday
}
var classDays: Set<DayOfTheWeek> = [.wednesday, .friday]
print(classDays.insert(.monday))
// Prints "(true, .monday)"
print(classDays)
// Prints "[.friday, .wednesday, .monday]"
print(classDays.insert(.friday))
// Prints "(false, .friday)"
print(classDays)
// Prints "[.friday, .wednesday, .monday]"
newMember
: An element to insert into the set.
Returns: (true, newMember)
if newMember
was not contained in the
set. If an element equal to newMember
was already contained in the
set, the method returns (false, oldMember)
, where oldMember
is the
element that was equal to newMember
. In some cases, oldMember
may
be distinguishable from newMember
by identity comparison or some
other means.
Declaration
mutating func insert(_ newMember: Set<Element>.Element) > (inserted: Bool, memberAfterInsert: Set<Element>.Element)
Declaration
mutating func insert<ConcreteElement>(_ newMember: ConcreteElement) > (inserted: Bool, memberAfterInsert: ConcreteElement) where ConcreteElement : Hashable
Returns a new set with the elements that are common to both this set and the given sequence.
In the following example, the bothNeighborsAndEmployees
set is made up
of the elements that are in both the employees
and neighbors
sets.
Elements that are in only one or the other are left out of the result of
the intersection.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors: Set = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani", "Greta"]
let bothNeighborsAndEmployees = employees.intersection(neighbors)
print(bothNeighborsAndEmployees)
// Prints "["Bethany", "Eric"]"
other
: Another set.
Returns: A new set.
Declaration
func intersection(_ other: Set<Set<Element>.Element>) > Set<Set<Element>.Element>
Returns a new set with the elements that are common to both this set and the given sequence.
In the following example, the bothNeighborsAndEmployees
set is made up
of the elements that are in both the employees
and neighbors
sets.
Elements that are in only one or the other are left out of the result of
the intersection.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani", "Greta"]
let bothNeighborsAndEmployees = employees.intersection(neighbors)
print(bothNeighborsAndEmployees)
// Prints "["Bethany", "Eric"]"
other
: A sequence of elements. other
must be finite.
Returns: A new set.
Declaration
func intersection<S>(_ other: S) > Set<Set<Element>.Element> where Element == S.Element, S : Sequence
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether this set has no members in common with the given set.
In the following example, the employees
set is disjoint with the
visitors
set because no name appears in both sets.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let visitors: Set = ["Marcia", "Nathaniel", "Olivia"]
print(employees.isDisjoint(with: visitors))
// Prints "true"
other
: Another set.
Returns: true
if the set has no elements in common with other
;
otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isDisjoint(with other: Set<Set<Element>.Element>) > Bool
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the set has no members in common with the given set.
In the following example, the employees
set is disjoint with the
visitors
set because no name appears in both sets.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let visitors: Set = ["Marcia", "Nathaniel", "Olivia"]
print(employees.isDisjoint(with: visitors))
// Prints "true"
other
: A set of the same type as the current set.
Returns: true
if the set has no elements in common with other
;
otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isDisjoint(with other: Set<Element>) > Bool
Declared In
SetAlgebra
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the set has no members in common with the given sequence.
In the following example, the employees
set is disjoint with the
elements of the visitors
array because no name appears in both.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let visitors = ["Marcia", "Nathaniel", "Olivia"]
print(employees.isDisjoint(with: visitors))
// Prints "true"
other
: A sequence of elements. other
must be finite.
Returns: true
if the set has no elements in common with other
;
otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isDisjoint<S>(with other: S) > Bool where Element == S.Element, S : Sequence
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the set is a strict subset of the given sequence.
Set A is a strict subset of another set B if every member of A is also a member of B and B contains at least one element that is not a member of A.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(attendees.isStrictSubset(of: employees))
// Prints "true"
// A set is never a strict subset of itself:
print(attendees.isStrictSubset(of: attendees))
// Prints "false"
other
: Another set.
Returns: true
if the set is a strict subset of
other
; otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isStrictSubset(of other: Set<Set<Element>.Element>) > Bool
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether this set is a strict subset of the given set.
Set A is a strict subset of another set B if every member of A is also a member of B and B contains at least one element that is not a member of A.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(attendees.isStrictSubset(of: employees))
// Prints "true"
// A set is never a strict subset of itself:
print(attendees.isStrictSubset(of: attendees))
// Prints "false"
other
: A set of the same type as the current set.
Returns: true
if the set is a strict subset of other
; otherwise,
false
.
Declaration
func isStrictSubset(of other: Set<Element>) > Bool
Declared In
SetAlgebra
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the set is a strict subset of the given sequence.
Set A is a strict subset of another set B if every member of A is also a member of B and B contains at least one element that is not a member of A.
let employees = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(attendees.isStrictSubset(of: employees))
// Prints "true"
// A set is never a strict subset of itself:
print(attendees.isStrictSubset(of: attendees))
// Prints "false"
possibleStrictSuperset
: A sequence of elements.
possibleStrictSuperset
must be finite.
Returns: true
is the set is strict subset of
possibleStrictSuperset
; otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isStrictSubset<S>(of possibleStrictSuperset: S) > Bool where Element == S.Element, S : Sequence
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the set is a strict superset of the given sequence.
Set A is a strict superset of another set B if every member of B is also a member of A and A contains at least one element that is not a member of B.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(employees.isStrictSuperset(of: attendees))
// Prints "true"
print(employees.isStrictSuperset(of: employees))
// Prints "false"
other
: Another set.
Returns: true
if the set is a strict superset of
other
; otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isStrictSuperset(of other: Set<Set<Element>.Element>) > Bool
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether this set is a strict superset of the given set.
Set A is a strict superset of another set B if every member of B is also a member of A and A contains at least one element that is not a member of B.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(employees.isStrictSuperset(of: attendees))
// Prints "true"
// A set is never a strict superset of itself:
print(employees.isStrictSuperset(of: employees))
// Prints "false"
other
: A set of the same type as the current set.
Returns: true
if the set is a strict superset of other
; otherwise,
false
.
Declaration
func isStrictSuperset(of other: Set<Element>) > Bool
Declared In
SetAlgebra
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the set is a strict superset of the given sequence.
Set A is a strict superset of another set B if every member of B is also a member of A and A contains at least one element that is not a member of B.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(employees.isStrictSuperset(of: attendees))
// Prints "true"
print(employees.isStrictSuperset(of: employees))
// Prints "false"
possibleStrictSubset
: A sequence of elements.
possibleStrictSubset
must be finite.
Returns: true
if the set is a strict superset of
possibleStrictSubset
; otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isStrictSuperset<S>(of possibleStrictSubset: S) > Bool where Element == S.Element, S : Sequence
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether this set is a subset of the given set.
Set A is a subset of another set B if every member of A is also a member of B.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(attendees.isSubset(of: employees))
// Prints "true"
other
: Another set.
Returns: true
if the set is a subset of other
; otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isSubset(of other: Set<Set<Element>.Element>) > Bool
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the set is a subset of another set.
Set A is a subset of another set B if every member of A is also a member of B.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(attendees.isSubset(of: employees))
// Prints "true"
other
: A set of the same type as the current set.
Returns: true
if the set is a subset of other
; otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isSubset(of other: Set<Element>) > Bool
Declared In
SetAlgebra
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the set is a subset of the given sequence.
Set A is a subset of another set B if every member of A is also a member of B.
let employees = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(attendees.isSubset(of: employees))
// Prints "true"
possibleSuperset
: A sequence of elements. possibleSuperset
must be finite.
Returns: true
if the set is a subset of possibleSuperset
;
otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isSubset<S>(of possibleSuperset: S) > Bool where Element == S.Element, S : Sequence
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether this set is a superset of the given set.
Set A is a superset of another set B if every member of B is also a member of A.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(employees.isSuperset(of: attendees))
// Prints "true"
other
: Another set.
Returns: true
if the set is a superset of other
; otherwise,
false
.
Declaration
func isSuperset(of other: Set<Set<Element>.Element>) > Bool
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the set is a superset of the given set.
Set A is a superset of another set B if every member of B is also a member of A.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(employees.isSuperset(of: attendees))
// Prints "true"
other
: A set of the same type as the current set.
Returns: true
if the set is a superset of other
; otherwise,
false
.
Declaration
func isSuperset(of other: Set<Element>) > Bool
Declared In
SetAlgebra
Returns a Boolean value that indicates whether the set is a superset of the given sequence.
Set A is a superset of another set B if every member of B is also a member of A.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let attendees = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
print(employees.isSuperset(of: attendees))
// Prints "true"
possibleSubset
: A sequence of elements. possibleSubset
must
be finite.
Returns: true
if the set is a superset of possibleSubset
;
otherwise, false
.
Declaration
func isSuperset<S>(of possibleSubset: S) > Bool where Element == S.Element, S : Sequence
Returns a Boolean value indicating whether the sequence precedes another sequence in a lexicographical (dictionary) ordering, using the given predicate to compare elements.
The predicate must be a strict weak ordering over the elements. That
is, for any elements a
, b
, and c
, the following conditions must
hold:
areInIncreasingOrder(a, a)
is alwaysfalse
. (Irreflexivity) If
areInIncreasingOrder(a, b)
andareInIncreasingOrder(b, c)
are bothtrue
, thenareInIncreasingOrder(a, c)
is alsotrue
. (Transitive comparability)  Two elements are incomparable if neither is ordered before the other
according to the predicate. If
a
andb
are incomparable, andb
andc
are incomparable, thena
andc
are also incomparable. (Transitive incomparability)
Parameters:
other: A sequence to compare to this sequence.
areInIncreasingOrder: A predicate that returns true
if its first
argument should be ordered before its second argument; otherwise,
false
.
Returns: true
if this sequence precedes other
in a dictionary
ordering as ordered by areInIncreasingOrder
; otherwise, false
.
Note: This method implements the mathematical notion of lexicographical
ordering, which has no connection to Unicode. If you are sorting
strings to present to the end user, use String
APIs that perform
localized comparison instead.
Declaration
func lexicographicallyPrecedes<OtherSequence>(_ other: OtherSequence, by areInIncreasingOrder: (Set<Element>.Element, Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Bool where OtherSequence : Sequence, Set<Element>.Element == OtherSequence.Element
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns an iterator over the members of the set.
Declaration
func makeIterator() > SetIterator<Element>
Returns an array containing the results of mapping the given closure over the sequence's elements.
In this example, map
is used first to convert the names in the array
to lowercase strings and then to count their characters.
let cast = ["Vivien", "Marlon", "Kim", "Karl"]
let lowercaseNames = cast.map { $0.lowercased() }
// 'lowercaseNames' == ["vivien", "marlon", "kim", "karl"]
let letterCounts = cast.map { $0.count }
// 'letterCounts' == [6, 6, 3, 4]
transform
: A mapping closure. transform
accepts an
element of this sequence as its parameter and returns a transformed
value of the same or of a different type.
Returns: An array containing the transformed elements of this
sequence.
Declaration
func map<T>(_ transform: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > T) rethrows > [T]
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the maximum element in the sequence, using the given predicate as the comparison between elements.
The predicate must be a strict weak ordering over the elements. That
is, for any elements a
, b
, and c
, the following conditions must
hold:
areInIncreasingOrder(a, a)
is alwaysfalse
. (Irreflexivity) If
areInIncreasingOrder(a, b)
andareInIncreasingOrder(b, c)
are bothtrue
, thenareInIncreasingOrder(a, c)
is alsotrue
. (Transitive comparability)  Two elements are incomparable if neither is ordered before the other
according to the predicate. If
a
andb
are incomparable, andb
andc
are incomparable, thena
andc
are also incomparable. (Transitive incomparability)
This example shows how to use the max(by:)
method on a
dictionary to find the keyvalue pair with the highest value.
let hues = ["Heliotrope": 296, "Coral": 16, "Aquamarine": 156]
let greatestHue = hues.max { a, b in a.value < b.value }
print(greatestHue)
// Prints "Optional(("Heliotrope", 296))"
areInIncreasingOrder
: A predicate that returns true
if its
first argument should be ordered before its second argument;
otherwise, false
.
Returns: The sequence's maximum element if the sequence is not empty;
otherwise, nil
.
Declaration
@warn_unqualified_access
func max(by areInIncreasingOrder: (Set<Element>.Element, Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Set<Element>.Element?
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the minimum element in the sequence, using the given predicate as the comparison between elements.
The predicate must be a strict weak ordering over the elements. That
is, for any elements a
, b
, and c
, the following conditions must
hold:
areInIncreasingOrder(a, a)
is alwaysfalse
. (Irreflexivity) If
areInIncreasingOrder(a, b)
andareInIncreasingOrder(b, c)
are bothtrue
, thenareInIncreasingOrder(a, c)
is alsotrue
. (Transitive comparability)  Two elements are incomparable if neither is ordered before the other
according to the predicate. If
a
andb
are incomparable, andb
andc
are incomparable, thena
andc
are also incomparable. (Transitive incomparability)
This example shows how to use the min(by:)
method on a
dictionary to find the keyvalue pair with the lowest value.
let hues = ["Heliotrope": 296, "Coral": 16, "Aquamarine": 156]
let leastHue = hues.min { a, b in a.value < b.value }
print(leastHue)
// Prints "Optional(("Coral", 16))"
areInIncreasingOrder
: A predicate that returns true
if its first argument should be ordered before its second
argument; otherwise, false
.
Returns: The sequence's minimum element, according to
areInIncreasingOrder
. If the sequence has no elements, returns
nil
.
Declaration
func min(by areInIncreasingOrder: (Set<Element>.Element, Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Set<Element>.Element?
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Removes and returns the first element of the set.
Because a set is not an ordered collection, the "first" element may not be the first element that was added to the set.
Returns: A member of the set. If the set is empty, returns nil
.
Declaration
mutating func popFirst() > Set<Element>.Element?
Returns a subsequence, up to the specified maximum length, containing the initial elements of the collection.
If the maximum length exceeds the number of elements in the collection, the result contains all the elements in the collection.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.prefix(2))
// Prints "[1, 2]"
print(numbers.prefix(10))
// Prints "[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]"
maxLength
: The maximum number of elements to return.
maxLength
must be greater than or equal to zero.
Returns: A subsequence starting at the beginning of this collection
with at most maxLength
elements.
Declaration
func prefix(_ maxLength: Int) > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
Returns a subsequence from the start of the collection through the specified position.
The resulting subsequence includes the element at the position end
.
The following example searches for the index of the number 40
in an
array of integers, and then prints the prefix of the array up to, and
including, that index:
let numbers = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60]
if let i = numbers.firstIndex(of: 40) {
print(numbers.prefix(through: i))
}
// Prints "[10, 20, 30, 40]"
Using the prefix(through:)
method is equivalent to using a partial
closed range as the collection's subscript. The subscript notation is
preferred over prefix(through:)
.
if let i = numbers.firstIndex(of: 40) {
print(numbers[...i])
}
// Prints "[10, 20, 30, 40]"
end
: The index of the last element to include in the
resulting subsequence. end
must be a valid index of the collection
that is not equal to the endIndex
property.
Returns: A subsequence up to, and including, the end
position.
Complexity: O(1)
Declaration
func prefix(through position: Set<Element>.Index) > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
Returns a subsequence from the start of the collection up to, but not including, the specified position.
The resulting subsequence does not include the element at the position
end
. The following example searches for the index of the number 40
in an array of integers, and then prints the prefix of the array up to,
but not including, that index:
let numbers = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60]
if let i = numbers.firstIndex(of: 40) {
print(numbers.prefix(upTo: i))
}
// Prints "[10, 20, 30]"
Passing the collection's starting index as the end
parameter results in
an empty subsequence.
print(numbers.prefix(upTo: numbers.startIndex))
// Prints "[]"
Using the prefix(upTo:)
method is equivalent to using a partial
halfopen range as the collection's subscript. The subscript notation is
preferred over prefix(upTo:)
.
if let i = numbers.firstIndex(of: 40) {
print(numbers[..<i])
}
// Prints "[10, 20, 30]"
end
: The "past the end" index of the resulting subsequence.
end
must be a valid index of the collection.
Returns: A subsequence up to, but not including, the end
position.
Complexity: O(1)
Declaration
func prefix(upTo end: Set<Element>.Index) > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
Returns a subsequence containing the initial elements until predicate
returns false
and skipping the remaining elements.
predicate
: A closure that takes an element of the
sequence as its argument and returns true
if the element should
be included or false
if it should be excluded. Once the predicate
returns false
it will not be called again.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the collection.
Declaration
func prefix(while predicate: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
Returns a random element of the collection.
Call randomElement()
to select a random element from an array or
another collection. This example picks a name at random from an array:
let names = ["Zoey", "Chloe", "Amani", "Amaia"]
let randomName = names.randomElement()!
// randomName == "Amani"
This method uses the default random generator, Random.default
. The call
to names.randomElement()
above is equivalent to calling
names.randomElement(using: &Random.default)
.
Returns: A random element from the collection. If the collection is
empty, the method returns nil
.
Declaration
func randomElement() > Set<Element>.Element?
Declared In
Collection
Returns a random element of the collection, using the given generator as a source for randomness.
Call randomElement(using:)
to select a random element from an array or
another collection when you are using a custom random number generator.
This example picks a name at random from an array:
let names = ["Zoey", "Chloe", "Amani", "Amaia"]
let randomName = names.randomElement(using: &myGenerator)!
// randomName == "Amani"
generator
: The random number generator to use when choosing
a random element.
Returns: A random element from the collection. If the collection is
empty, the method returns nil
.
Declaration
func randomElement<T>(using generator: inout T) > Set<Element>.Element? where T : RandomNumberGenerator
Declared In
Collection
Returns the result of combining the elements of the sequence using the given closure.
Use the reduce(_:_:)
method to produce a single value from the elements
of an entire sequence. For example, you can use this method on an array
of numbers to find their sum or product.
The nextPartialResult
closure is called sequentially with an
accumulating value initialized to initialResult
and each element of
the sequence. This example shows how to find the sum of an array of
numbers.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4]
let numberSum = numbers.reduce(0, { x, y in
x + y
})
// numberSum == 10
When numbers.reduce(_:_:)
is called, the following steps occur:
 The
nextPartialResult
closure is called withinitialResult
0
in this caseand the first element ofnumbers
, returning the sum:1
.  The closure is called again repeatedly with the previous call's return value and each element of the sequence.
 When the sequence is exhausted, the last value returned from the closure is returned to the caller.
If the sequence has no elements, nextPartialResult
is never executed
and initialResult
is the result of the call to reduce(_:_:)
.
Parameters:
initialResult: The value to use as the initial accumulating value.
initialResult
is passed to nextPartialResult
the first time the
closure is executed.
nextPartialResult: A closure that combines an accumulating value and
an element of the sequence into a new accumulating value, to be used
in the next call of the nextPartialResult
closure or returned to
the caller.
Returns: The final accumulated value. If the sequence has no elements,
the result is initialResult
.
Declaration
func reduce<Result>(_ initialResult: Result, _ nextPartialResult: (Result, Set<Element>.Element) throws > Result) rethrows > Result
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the result of combining the elements of the sequence using the given closure.
Use the reduce(into:_:)
method to produce a single value from the
elements of an entire sequence. For example, you can use this method on an
array of integers to filter adjacent equal entries or count frequencies.
This method is preferred over reduce(_:_:)
for efficiency when the
result is a copyonwrite type, for example an Array or a Dictionary.
The updateAccumulatingResult
closure is called sequentially with a
mutable accumulating value initialized to initialResult
and each element
of the sequence. This example shows how to build a dictionary of letter
frequencies of a string.
let letters = "abracadabra"
let letterCount = letters.reduce(into: [:]) { counts, letter in
counts[letter, default: 0] += 1
}
// letterCount == ["a": 5, "b": 2, "r": 2, "c": 1, "d": 1]
When letters.reduce(into:_:)
is called, the following steps occur:
 The
updateAccumulatingResult
closure is called with the initial accumulating value[:]
in this caseand the first character ofletters
, modifying the accumulating value by setting1
for the key"a"
.  The closure is called again repeatedly with the updated accumulating value and each element of the sequence.
 When the sequence is exhausted, the accumulating value is returned to the caller.
If the sequence has no elements, updateAccumulatingResult
is never
executed and initialResult
is the result of the call to
reduce(into:_:)
.
Parameters:
initialResult: The value to use as the initial accumulating value.
updateAccumulatingResult: A closure that updates the accumulating
value with an element of the sequence.
Returns: The final accumulated value. If the sequence has no elements,
the result is initialResult
.
Declaration
func reduce<Result>(into initialResult: Result, _ updateAccumulatingResult: (inout Result, Set<Element>.Element) throws > ()) rethrows > Result
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Removes the specified element from the set.
This example removes the element "sugar"
from a set of ingredients.
var ingredients: Set = ["cocoa beans", "sugar", "cocoa butter", "salt"]
let toRemove = "sugar"
if let removed = ingredients.remove(toRemove) {
print("The recipe is now \(removed)free.")
}
// Prints "The recipe is now sugarfree."
member
: The element to remove from the set.
Returns: The value of the member
parameter if it was a member of the
set; otherwise, nil
.
Declaration
mutating func remove(_ member: Set<Element>.Element) > Set<Element>.Element?
Declaration
mutating func remove<ConcreteElement>(_ member: ConcreteElement) > ConcreteElement? where ConcreteElement : Hashable
Removes the element at the given index of the set.
position
: The index of the member to remove. position
must
be a valid index of the set, and must not be equal to the set's end
index.
Returns: The element that was removed from the set.
Declaration
mutating func remove(at position: Set<Element>.Index) > Set<Element>.Element
Removes all members from the set.
keepingCapacity
: If true
, the set's buffer capacity is
preserved; if false
, the underlying buffer is released. The
default is false
.
Declaration
mutating func removeAll(keepingCapacity keepCapacity: Bool = default)
Removes the first element of the set.
Because a set is not an ordered collection, the "first" element may not be the first element that was added to the set. The set must not be empty.
Complexity: Amortized O(1) if the set does not wrap a bridged NSSet
.
If the set wraps a bridged NSSet
, the performance is unspecified.
Returns: A member of the set.
Declaration
mutating func removeFirst() > Set<Element>.Element
Reserves enough space to store the specified number of elements.
If you are adding a known number of elements to a set, use this method to avoid multiple reallocations. This method ensures that the set has unique, mutable, contiguous storage, with space allocated for at least the requested number of elements.
Calling the reserveCapacity(_:)
method on a set with bridged
storage triggers a copy to contiguous storage even if the existing
storage has room to store minimumCapacity
elements.
minimumCapacity
: The requested number of elements to
store.
Declaration
mutating func reserveCapacity(_ minimumCapacity: Int)
Returns an array containing the elements of this sequence in reverse order.
The sequence must be finite.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the sequence.
Returns: An array containing the elements of this sequence in reverse order.
Declaration
func reversed() > [Set<Element>.Element]
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the elements of the sequence, shuffled.
For example, you can shuffle the numbers between 0
and 9
by calling
the shuffled()
method on that range:
let numbers = 0...9
let shuffledNumbers = numbers.shuffled()
// shuffledNumbers == [1, 7, 6, 2, 8, 9, 4, 3, 5, 0]
This method uses the default random generator, Random.default
. The call
to numbers.shuffled()
above is equivalent to calling
numbers.shuffled(using: &Random.default)
.
Returns: A shuffled array of this sequence's elements.
Complexity: O(n)
Declaration
func shuffled() > [Set<Element>.Element]
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the elements of the sequence, shuffled using the given generator as a source for randomness.
You use this method to randomize the elements of a sequence when you
are using a custom random number generator. For example, you can shuffle
the numbers between 0
and 9
by calling the shuffled(using:)
method
on that range:
let numbers = 0...9
let shuffledNumbers = numbers.shuffled(using: &myGenerator)
// shuffledNumbers == [8, 9, 4, 3, 2, 6, 7, 0, 5, 1]
generator
: The random number generator to use when shuffling
the sequence.
Returns: An array of this sequence's elements in a shuffled order.
Complexity: O(n)
Declaration
func shuffled<T>(using generator: inout T) > [Set<Element>.Element] where T : RandomNumberGenerator
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the elements of the sequence, sorted using the given predicate as the comparison between elements.
When you want to sort a sequence of elements that don't conform to the
Comparable
protocol, pass a predicate to this method that returns
true
when the first element passed should be ordered before the
second. The elements of the resulting array are ordered according to the
given predicate.
The predicate must be a strict weak ordering over the elements. That
is, for any elements a
, b
, and c
, the following conditions must
hold:
areInIncreasingOrder(a, a)
is alwaysfalse
. (Irreflexivity) If
areInIncreasingOrder(a, b)
andareInIncreasingOrder(b, c)
are bothtrue
, thenareInIncreasingOrder(a, c)
is alsotrue
. (Transitive comparability)  Two elements are incomparable if neither is ordered before the other
according to the predicate. If
a
andb
are incomparable, andb
andc
are incomparable, thena
andc
are also incomparable. (Transitive incomparability)
The sorting algorithm is not stable. A nonstable sort may change the
relative order of elements for which areInIncreasingOrder
does not
establish an order.
In the following example, the predicate provides an ordering for an array
of a custom HTTPResponse
type. The predicate orders errors before
successes and sorts the error responses by their error code.
enum HTTPResponse {
case ok
case error(Int)
}
let responses: [HTTPResponse] = [.error(500), .ok, .ok, .error(404), .error(403)]
let sortedResponses = responses.sorted {
switch ($0, $1) {
// Order errors by code
case let (.error(aCode), .error(bCode)):
return aCode < bCode
// All successes are equivalent, so none is before any other
case (.ok, .ok): return false
// Order errors before successes
case (.error, .ok): return true
case (.ok, .error): return false
}
}
print(sortedResponses)
// Prints "[.error(403), .error(404), .error(500), .ok, .ok]"
You also use this method to sort elements that conform to the
Comparable
protocol in descending order. To sort your sequence in
descending order, pass the greaterthan operator (>
) as the
areInIncreasingOrder
parameter.
let students: Set = ["Kofi", "Abena", "Peter", "Kweku", "Akosua"]
let descendingStudents = students.sorted(by: >)
print(descendingStudents)
// Prints "["Peter", "Kweku", "Kofi", "Akosua", "Abena"]"
Calling the related sorted()
method is equivalent to calling this
method and passing the lessthan operator (<
) as the predicate.
print(students.sorted())
// Prints "["Abena", "Akosua", "Kofi", "Kweku", "Peter"]"
print(students.sorted(by: <))
// Prints "["Abena", "Akosua", "Kofi", "Kweku", "Peter"]"
areInIncreasingOrder
: A predicate that returns true
if its
first argument should be ordered before its second argument;
otherwise, false
.
Returns: A sorted array of the sequence's elements.
Declaration
func sorted(by areInIncreasingOrder: (Set<Element>.Element, Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > [Set<Element>.Element]
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the longest possible subsequences of the collection, in order, that don't contain elements satisfying the given predicate.
The resulting array consists of at most maxSplits + 1
subsequences.
Elements that are used to split the sequence are not returned as part of
any subsequence.
The following examples show the effects of the maxSplits
and
omittingEmptySubsequences
parameters when splitting a string using a
closure that matches spaces. The first use of split
returns each word
that was originally separated by one or more spaces.
let line = "BLANCHE: I don't want realism. I want magic!"
print(line.split(whereSeparator: { $0 == " " }))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", "I", "don\'t", "want", "realism.", "I", "want", "magic!"]"
The second example passes 1
for the maxSplits
parameter, so the
original string is split just once, into two new strings.
print(line.split(maxSplits: 1, whereSeparator: { $0 == " " }))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", " I don\'t want realism. I want magic!"]"
The final example passes false
for the omittingEmptySubsequences
parameter, so the returned array contains empty strings where spaces
were repeated.
print(line.split(omittingEmptySubsequences: false, whereSeparator: { $0 == " " }))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", "", "", "I", "don\'t", "want", "realism.", "I", "want", "magic!"]"
Parameters:
maxSplits: The maximum number of times to split the collection, or
one less than the number of subsequences to return. If
maxSplits + 1
subsequences are returned, the last one is a suffix
of the original collection containing the remaining elements.
maxSplits
must be greater than or equal to zero. The default value
is Int.max
.
omittingEmptySubsequences: If false
, an empty subsequence is
returned in the result for each pair of consecutive elements
satisfying the isSeparator
predicate and for each element at the
start or end of the collection satisfying the isSeparator
predicate. The default value is true
.
isSeparator: A closure that takes an element as an argument and
returns a Boolean value indicating whether the collection should be
split at that element.
Returns: An array of subsequences, split from this collection's
elements.
Declaration
func split(maxSplits: Int = default, omittingEmptySubsequences: Bool = default, whereSeparator isSeparator: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > [Set<Element>.SubSequence]
Declared In
Collection
Returns a Boolean value indicating whether the initial elements of the sequence are equivalent to the elements in another sequence, using the given predicate as the equivalence test.
The predicate must be a equivalence relation over the elements. That
is, for any elements a
, b
, and c
, the following conditions must
hold:
areEquivalent(a, a)
is alwaystrue
. (Reflexivity)areEquivalent(a, b)
impliesareEquivalent(b, a)
. (Symmetry) If
areEquivalent(a, b)
andareEquivalent(b, c)
are bothtrue
, thenareEquivalent(a, c)
is alsotrue
. (Transitivity)
Parameters:
possiblePrefix: A sequence to compare to this sequence.
areEquivalent: A predicate that returns true
if its two arguments
are equivalent; otherwise, false
.
Returns: true
if the initial elements of the sequence are equivalent
to the elements of possiblePrefix
; otherwise, false
. If
possiblePrefix
has no elements, the return value is true
.
Declaration
func starts<PossiblePrefix>(with possiblePrefix: PossiblePrefix, by areEquivalent: (Set<Element>.Element, PossiblePrefix.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > Bool where PossiblePrefix : Sequence
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Removes the elements of the given set from this set.
In the following example, the elements of the employees
set that are
also members of the neighbors
set are removed. In particular, the
names "Bethany"
and "Eric"
are removed from employees
.
var employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors: Set = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani", "Greta"]
employees.subtract(neighbors)
print(employees)
// Prints "["Diana", "Chris", "Alicia"]"
other
: Another set.
Declaration
mutating func subtract(_ other: Set<Set<Element>.Element>)
Removes the elements of the given set from this set.
In the following example, the elements of the employees
set that are
also members of the neighbors
set are removed. In particular, the
names "Bethany"
and "Eric"
are removed from employees
.
var employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors: Set = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani", "Greta"]
employees.subtract(neighbors)
print(employees)
// Prints "["Diana", "Chris", "Alicia"]"
other
: A set of the same type as the current set.
Declaration
mutating func subtract(_ other: Set<Element>)
Declared In
SetAlgebra
Removes the elements of the given sequence from the set.
In the following example, the elements of the employees
set that are
also elements of the neighbors
array are removed. In particular, the
names "Bethany"
and "Eric"
are removed from employees
.
var employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani", "Greta"]
employees.subtract(neighbors)
print(employees)
// Prints "["Chris", "Diana", "Alicia"]"
other
: A sequence of elements. other
must be finite.
Declaration
mutating func subtract<S>(_ other: S)
Returns a new set containing the elements of this set that do not occur in the given set.
In the following example, the nonNeighbors
set is made up of the
elements of the employees
set that are not elements of neighbors
:
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors: Set = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani", "Greta"]
let nonNeighbors = employees.subtracting(neighbors)
print(nonNeighbors)
// Prints "["Diana", "Chris", "Alicia"]"
other
: Another set.
Returns: A new set.
Declaration
func subtracting(_ other: Set<Set<Element>.Element>) > Set<Set<Element>.Element>
Returns a new set containing the elements of this set that do not occur in the given set.
In the following example, the nonNeighbors
set is made up of the
elements of the employees
set that are not elements of neighbors
:
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors: Set = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani", "Greta"]
let nonNeighbors = employees.subtract(neighbors)
print(nonNeighbors)
// Prints "["Diana", "Chris", "Alicia"]"
other
: A set of the same type as the current set.
Returns: A new set.
Declaration
func subtracting(_ other: Set<Element>) > Set<Element>
Declared In
SetAlgebra
Returns a new set containing the elements of this set that do not occur in the given sequence.
In the following example, the nonNeighbors
set is made up of the
elements of the employees
set that are not elements of neighbors
:
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Chris", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani", "Greta"]
let nonNeighbors = employees.subtracting(neighbors)
print(nonNeighbors)
// Prints "["Chris", "Diana", "Alicia"]"
other
: A sequence of elements. other
must be finite.
Returns: A new set.
Declaration
func subtracting<S>(_ other: S) > Set<Set<Element>.Element> where Element == S.Element, S : Sequence
Returns a subsequence, up to the given maximum length, containing the final elements of the collection.
If the maximum length exceeds the number of elements in the collection, the result contains all the elements in the collection.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.suffix(2))
// Prints "[4, 5]"
print(numbers.suffix(10))
// Prints "[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]"
maxLength
: The maximum number of elements to return. The
value of maxLength
must be greater than or equal to zero.
Returns: A subsequence terminating at the end of the collection with at
most maxLength
elements.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the collection.
Declaration
func suffix(_ maxLength: Int) > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
Returns a subsequence from the specified position to the end of the collection.
The following example searches for the index of the number 40
in an
array of integers, and then prints the suffix of the array starting at
that index:
let numbers = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60]
if let i = numbers.firstIndex(of: 40) {
print(numbers.suffix(from: i))
}
// Prints "[40, 50, 60]"
Passing the collection's endIndex
as the start
parameter results in
an empty subsequence.
print(numbers.suffix(from: numbers.endIndex))
// Prints "[]"
Using the suffix(from:)
method is equivalent to using a partial range
from the index as the collection's subscript. The subscript notation is
preferred over suffix(from:)
.
if let i = numbers.firstIndex(of: 40) {
print(numbers[i...])
}
// Prints "[40, 50, 60]"
start
: The index at which to start the resulting subsequence.
start
must be a valid index of the collection.
Returns: A subsequence starting at the start
position.
Complexity: O(1)
Declaration
func suffix(from start: Set<Element>.Index) > Set<Element>.SubSequence
Declared In
Collection
Returns a new set with the elements that are either in this set or in the given sequence, but not in both.
In the following example, the eitherNeighborsOrEmployees
set is made up
of the elements of the employees
and neighbors
sets that are not in
both employees
and neighbors
. In particular, the names "Bethany"
and "Eric"
do not appear in eitherNeighborsOrEmployees
.
let employees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana", "Eric"]
let neighbors = ["Bethany", "Eric", "Forlani"]
let eitherNeighborsOrEmployees = employees.symmetricDifference(neighbors)
print(eitherNeighborsOrEmployees)
// Prints "["Diana", "Forlani", "Alicia"]"
other
: A sequence of elements. other
must be finite.
Returns: A new set.
Declaration
func symmetricDifference<S>(_ other: S) > Set<Set<Element>.Element> where Element == S.Element, S : Sequence
Returns a new set with the elements of both this set and the given sequence.
In the following example, the attendeesAndVisitors
set is made up
of the elements of the attendees
set and the visitors
array:
let attendees: Set = ["Alicia", "Bethany", "Diana"]
let visitors = ["Marcia", "Nathaniel"]
let attendeesAndVisitors = attendees.union(visitors)
print(attendeesAndVisitors)
// Prints "["Diana", "Nathaniel", "Bethany", "Alicia", "Marcia"]"
If the set already contains one or more elements that are also in
other
, the existing members are kept. If other
contains multiple
instances of equivalent elements, only the first instance is kept.
let initialIndices = Set(0..<5)
let expandedIndices = initialIndices.union([2, 3, 6, 6, 7, 7])
print(expandedIndices)
// Prints "[2, 4, 6, 7, 0, 1, 3]"
other
: A sequence of elements. other
must be finite.
Returns: A new set with the unique elements of this set and other
.
Declaration
func union<S>(_ other: S) > Set<Set<Element>.Element> where Element == S.Element, S : Sequence
Inserts the given element into the set unconditionally.
If an element equal to newMember
is already contained in the set,
newMember
replaces the existing element. In this example, an existing
element is inserted into classDays
, a set of days of the week.
enum DayOfTheWeek: Int {
case sunday, monday, tuesday, wednesday, thursday,
friday, saturday
}
var classDays: Set<DayOfTheWeek> = [.monday, .wednesday, .friday]
print(classDays.update(with: .monday))
// Prints "Optional(.monday)"
newMember
: An element to insert into the set.
Returns: An element equal to newMember
if the set already contained
such a member; otherwise, nil
. In some cases, the returned element
may be distinguishable from newMember
by identity comparison or some
other means.
Declaration
mutating func update(with newMember: Set<Element>.Element) > Set<Element>.Element?
Declaration
mutating func update<ConcreteElement>(with newMember: ConcreteElement) > ConcreteElement? where ConcreteElement : Hashable
Conditionally Inherited Items
The initializers, methods, and properties listed below may be available on this type under certain conditions (such as methods that are available on Array
when its elements are Equatable
) or may not ever be available if that determination is beyond SwiftDoc.org's capabilities. Please open an issue on GitHub if you see something out of place!
Where ArrayLiteralElement == Element
Creates a set containing the elements of the given array literal.
Do not call this initializer directly. It is used by the compiler when you use an array literal. Instead, create a new set using an array literal as its value by enclosing a commaseparated list of values in square brackets. You can use an array literal anywhere a set is expected by the type context.
Here, a set of strings is created from an array literal holding only strings:
let ingredients: Set = ["cocoa beans", "sugar", "cocoa butter", "salt"]
if ingredients.isSuperset(of: ["sugar", "salt"]) {
print("Whatever it is, it's bound to be delicious!")
}
// Prints "Whatever it is, it's bound to be delicious!"
arrayLiteral
: A list of elements of the new set.
Declaration
init(arrayLiteral: Set<Element>.Element...)
Declared In
SetAlgebra
Where Element : Collection
Returns the elements of this collection of collections, concatenated.
In this example, an array of three ranges is flattened so that the elements of each range can be iterated in turn.
let ranges = [0..<3, 8..<10, 15..<17]
// A forin loop over 'ranges' accesses each range:
for range in ranges {
print(range)
}
// Prints "0..<3"
// Prints "8..<10"
// Prints "15..<17"
// Use 'joined()' to access each element of each range:
for index in ranges.joined() {
print(index, terminator: " ")
}
// Prints: "0 1 2 8 9 15 16"
Returns: A flattened view of the elements of this collection of collections.
Declaration
func joined() > FlattenCollection<Set<Element>>
Declared In
Collection
Where Element : Comparable
Returns a Boolean value indicating whether the sequence precedes another
sequence in a lexicographical (dictionary) ordering, using the
lessthan operator (<
) to compare elements.
This example uses the lexicographicallyPrecedes
method to test which
array of integers comes first in a lexicographical ordering.
let a = [1, 2, 2, 2]
let b = [1, 2, 3, 4]
print(a.lexicographicallyPrecedes(b))
// Prints "true"
print(b.lexicographicallyPrecedes(b))
// Prints "false"
other
: A sequence to compare to this sequence.
Returns: true
if this sequence precedes other
in a dictionary
ordering; otherwise, false
.
Note: This method implements the mathematical notion of lexicographical
ordering, which has no connection to Unicode. If you are sorting
strings to present to the end user, use String
APIs that
perform localized comparison.
Declaration
func lexicographicallyPrecedes<OtherSequence>(_ other: OtherSequence) > Bool where OtherSequence : Sequence, Set<Element>.Element == OtherSequence.Element
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the maximum element in the sequence.
This example finds the largest value in an array of height measurements.
let heights = [67.5, 65.7, 64.3, 61.1, 58.5, 60.3, 64.9]
let greatestHeight = heights.max()
print(greatestHeight)
// Prints "Optional(67.5)"
Returns: The sequence's maximum element. If the sequence has no
elements, returns nil
.
Declaration
@warn_unqualified_access
func max() > Set<Element>.Element?
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the minimum element in the sequence.
This example finds the smallest value in an array of height measurements.
let heights = [67.5, 65.7, 64.3, 61.1, 58.5, 60.3, 64.9]
let lowestHeight = heights.min()
print(lowestHeight)
// Prints "Optional(58.5)"
Returns: The sequence's minimum element. If the sequence has no
elements, returns nil
.
Declaration
@warn_unqualified_access
func min() > Set<Element>.Element?
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the elements of the sequence, sorted.
You can sort any sequence of elements that conform to the Comparable
protocol by calling this method. Elements are sorted in ascending order.
The sorting algorithm is not stable. A nonstable sort may change the relative order of elements that compare equal.
Here's an example of sorting a list of students' names. Strings in Swift
conform to the Comparable
protocol, so the names are sorted in
ascending order according to the lessthan operator (<
).
let students: Set = ["Kofi", "Abena", "Peter", "Kweku", "Akosua"]
let sortedStudents = students.sorted()
print(sortedStudents)
// Prints "["Abena", "Akosua", "Kofi", "Kweku", "Peter"]"
To sort the elements of your sequence in descending order, pass the
greaterthan operator (>
) to the sorted(by:)
method.
let descendingStudents = students.sorted(by: >)
print(descendingStudents)
// Prints "["Peter", "Kweku", "Kofi", "Akosua", "Abena"]"
Returns: A sorted array of the sequence's elements.
Declaration
func sorted() > [Set<Element>.Element]
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Where Element : Equatable
Returns a Boolean value indicating whether the sequence contains the given element.
This example checks to see whether a favorite actor is in an array storing a movie's cast.
let cast = ["Vivien", "Marlon", "Kim", "Karl"]
print(cast.contains("Marlon"))
// Prints "true"
print(cast.contains("James"))
// Prints "false"
element
: The element to find in the sequence.
Returns: true
if the element was found in the sequence; otherwise,
false
.
Declaration
func contains(_ element: Set<Element>.Element) > Bool
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a Boolean value indicating whether this sequence and another sequence contain the same elements in the same order.
At least one of the sequences must be finite.
This example tests whether one countable range shares the same elements as another countable range and an array.
let a = 1...3
let b = 1...10
print(a.elementsEqual(b))
// Prints "false"
print(a.elementsEqual([1, 2, 3]))
// Prints "true"
other
: A sequence to compare to this sequence.
Returns: true
if this sequence and other
contain the same elements
in the same order.
Declaration
func elementsEqual<OtherSequence>(_ other: OtherSequence) > Bool where OtherSequence : Sequence, Set<Element>.Element == OtherSequence.Element
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the first index where the specified value appears in the collection.
After using firstIndex(of:)
to find the position of a particular element
in a collection, you can use it to access the element by subscripting.
This example shows how you can modify one of the names in an array of
students.
var students = ["Ben", "Ivy", "Jordell", "Maxime"]
if let i = students.firstIndex(of: "Maxime") {
students[i] = "Max"
}
print(students)
// Prints "["Ben", "Ivy", "Jordell", "Max"]"
element
: An element to search for in the collection.
Returns: The first index where element
is found. If element
is not
found in the collection, returns nil
.
Declaration
func firstIndex(of element: Set<Element>.Element) > Set<Element>.Index?
Declared In
Collection
Returns the longest possible subsequences of the collection, in order, around elements equal to the given element.
The resulting array consists of at most maxSplits + 1
subsequences.
Elements that are used to split the collection are not returned as part
of any subsequence.
The following examples show the effects of the maxSplits
and
omittingEmptySubsequences
parameters when splitting a string at each
space character (" "). The first use of split
returns each word that
was originally separated by one or more spaces.
let line = "BLANCHE: I don't want realism. I want magic!"
print(line.split(separator: " "))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", "I", "don\'t", "want", "realism.", "I", "want", "magic!"]"
The second example passes 1
for the maxSplits
parameter, so the
original string is split just once, into two new strings.
print(line.split(separator: " ", maxSplits: 1))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", " I don\'t want realism. I want magic!"]"
The final example passes false
for the omittingEmptySubsequences
parameter, so the returned array contains empty strings where spaces
were repeated.
print(line.split(separator: " ", omittingEmptySubsequences: false))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", "", "", "I", "don\'t", "want", "realism.", "I", "want", "magic!"]"
Parameters:
separator: The element that should be split upon.
maxSplits: The maximum number of times to split the collection, or
one less than the number of subsequences to return. If
maxSplits + 1
subsequences are returned, the last one is a suffix
of the original collection containing the remaining elements.
maxSplits
must be greater than or equal to zero. The default value
is Int.max
.
omittingEmptySubsequences: If false
, an empty subsequence is
returned in the result for each consecutive pair of separator
elements in the collection and for each instance of separator
at
the start or end of the collection. If true
, only nonempty
subsequences are returned. The default value is true
.
Returns: An array of subsequences, split from this collection's
elements.
Declaration
func split(separator: Set<Element>.Element, maxSplits: Int = default, omittingEmptySubsequences: Bool = default) > [Set<Element>.SubSequence]
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a Boolean value indicating whether the initial elements of the sequence are the same as the elements in another sequence.
This example tests whether one countable range begins with the elements of another countable range.
let a = 1...3
let b = 1...10
print(b.starts(with: a))
// Prints "true"
Passing a sequence with no elements or an empty collection as
possiblePrefix
always results in true
.
print(b.starts(with: []))
// Prints "true"
possiblePrefix
: A sequence to compare to this sequence.
Returns: true
if the initial elements of the sequence are the same as
the elements of possiblePrefix
; otherwise, false
. If
possiblePrefix
has no elements, the return value is true
.
Declaration
func starts<PossiblePrefix>(with possiblePrefix: PossiblePrefix) > Bool where PossiblePrefix : Sequence, Set<Element>.Element == PossiblePrefix.Element
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Where Element : Sequence
Returns the elements of this sequence of sequences, concatenated.
In this example, an array of three ranges is flattened so that the elements of each range can be iterated in turn.
let ranges = [0..<3, 8..<10, 15..<17]
// A forin loop over 'ranges' accesses each range:
for range in ranges {
print(range)
}
// Prints "0..<3"
// Prints "8..<10"
// Prints "15..<17"
// Use 'joined()' to access each element of each range:
for index in ranges.joined() {
print(index, terminator: " ")
}
// Prints: "0 1 2 8 9 15 16"
Returns: A flattened view of the elements of this sequence of sequences.
Declaration
func joined() > FlattenSequence<Set<Element>>
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the concatenated elements of this sequence of sequences, inserting the given separator between each element.
This example shows how an array of [Int]
instances can be joined, using
another [Int]
instance as the separator:
let nestedNumbers = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]
let joined = nestedNumbers.joined(separator: [1, 2])
print(Array(joined))
// Prints "[1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 1, 2, 7, 8, 9]"
separator
: A sequence to insert between each of this
sequence's elements.
Returns: The joined sequence of elements.
Declaration
func joined<Separator>(separator: Separator) > JoinedSequence<Set<Element>> where Separator : Sequence, Separator.Element == Set<Element>.Element.Element
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Where Element : StringProtocol
Returns a new string by concatenating the elements of the sequence, adding the given separator between each element.
The following example shows how an array of strings can be joined to a single, commaseparated string:
let cast = ["Vivien", "Marlon", "Kim", "Karl"]
let list = cast.joined(separator: ", ")
print(list)
// Prints "Vivien, Marlon, Kim, Karl"
separator
: A string to insert between each of the elements
in this sequence. The default separator is an empty string.
Returns: A single, concatenated string.
Declaration
func joined(separator: String = default) > String
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Where Indices == DefaultIndices
The indices that are valid for subscripting the collection, in ascending order.
A collection's indices
property can hold a strong reference to the
collection itself, causing the collection to be nonuniquely referenced.
If you mutate the collection while iterating over its indices, a strong
reference can cause an unexpected copy of the collection. To avoid the
unexpected copy, use the index(after:)
method starting with
startIndex
to produce indices instead.
var c = MyFancyCollection([10, 20, 30, 40, 50])
var i = c.startIndex
while i != c.endIndex {
c[i] /= 5
i = c.index(after: i)
}
// c == MyFancyCollection([2, 4, 6, 8, 10])
Declaration
var indices: DefaultIndices<Set<Element>> { get }
Declared In
Collection
Where Iterator == IndexingIterator
Returns an iterator over the elements of the collection.
Declaration
func makeIterator() > IndexingIterator<Set<Element>>
Declared In
Collection
Where SubSequence == AnySequence
Returns a subsequence by skipping the initial, consecutive elements that satisfy the given predicate.
The following example uses the drop(while:)
method to skip over the
positive numbers at the beginning of the numbers
array. The result
begins with the first element of numbers
that does not satisfy
predicate
.
let numbers = [3, 7, 4, 2, 9, 6, 10, 1]
let startingWithNegative = numbers.drop(while: { $0 > 0 })
// startingWithNegative == [2, 9, 6, 10, 1]
If predicate
matches every element in the sequence, the result is an
empty sequence.
predicate
: A closure that takes an element of the sequence as
its argument and returns a Boolean value indicating whether the
element should be included in the result.
Returns: A subsequence starting after the initial, consecutive elements
that satisfy predicate
.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the collection.
Declaration
func drop(while predicate: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > AnySequence<Set<Element>.Element>
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a subsequence containing all but the given number of initial elements.
If the number of elements to drop exceeds the number of elements in the sequence, the result is an empty subsequence.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.dropFirst(2))
// Prints "[3, 4, 5]"
print(numbers.dropFirst(10))
// Prints "[]"
n
: The number of elements to drop from the beginning of
the sequence. n
must be greater than or equal to zero.
Returns: A subsequence starting after the specified number of
elements.
Complexity: O(1).
Declaration
func dropFirst(_ n: Int) > AnySequence<Set<Element>.Element>
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a subsequence containing all but the given number of final elements.
The sequence must be finite. If the number of elements to drop exceeds the number of elements in the sequence, the result is an empty subsequence.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.dropLast(2))
// Prints "[1, 2, 3]"
print(numbers.dropLast(10))
// Prints "[]"
n
: The number of elements to drop off the end of the
sequence. n
must be greater than or equal to zero.
Returns: A subsequence leaving off the specified number of elements.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the sequence.
Declaration
func dropLast(_ n: Int) > AnySequence<Set<Element>.Element>
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a subsequence, up to the specified maximum length, containing the initial elements of the sequence.
If the maximum length exceeds the number of elements in the sequence, the result contains all the elements in the sequence.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.prefix(2))
// Prints "[1, 2]"
print(numbers.prefix(10))
// Prints "[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]"
maxLength
: The maximum number of elements to return. The
value of maxLength
must be greater than or equal to zero.
Returns: A subsequence starting at the beginning of this sequence
with at most maxLength
elements.
Complexity: O(1)
Declaration
func prefix(_ maxLength: Int) > AnySequence<Set<Element>.Element>
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a subsequence containing the initial, consecutive elements that satisfy the given predicate.
The following example uses the prefix(while:)
method to find the
positive numbers at the beginning of the numbers
array. Every element
of numbers
up to, but not including, the first negative value is
included in the result.
let numbers = [3, 7, 4, 2, 9, 6, 10, 1]
let positivePrefix = numbers.prefix(while: { $0 > 0 })
// positivePrefix == [3, 7, 4]
If predicate
matches every element in the sequence, the resulting
sequence contains every element of the sequence.
predicate
: A closure that takes an element of the sequence as
its argument and returns a Boolean value indicating whether the
element should be included in the result.
Returns: A subsequence of the initial, consecutive elements that
satisfy predicate
.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the collection.
Declaration
func prefix(while predicate: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > AnySequence<Set<Element>.Element>
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns the longest possible subsequences of the sequence, in order, that don't contain elements satisfying the given predicate. Elements that are used to split the sequence are not returned as part of any subsequence.
The following examples show the effects of the maxSplits
and
omittingEmptySubsequences
parameters when splitting a string using a
closure that matches spaces. The first use of split
returns each word
that was originally separated by one or more spaces.
let line = "BLANCHE: I don't want realism. I want magic!"
print(line.split(whereSeparator: { $0 == " " })
.map(String.init))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", "I", "don\'t", "want", "realism.", "I", "want", "magic!"]"
The second example passes 1
for the maxSplits
parameter, so the
original string is split just once, into two new strings.
print(
line.split(maxSplits: 1, whereSeparator: { $0 == " " })
.map(String.init))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", " I don\'t want realism. I want magic!"]"
The final example passes true
for the allowEmptySlices
parameter, so
the returned array contains empty strings where spaces were repeated.
print(
line.split(
omittingEmptySubsequences: false,
whereSeparator: { $0 == " " }
).map(String.init))
// Prints "["BLANCHE:", "", "", "I", "don\'t", "want", "realism.", "I", "want", "magic!"]"
Parameters:
maxSplits: The maximum number of times to split the sequence, or one
less than the number of subsequences to return. If maxSplits + 1
subsequences are returned, the last one is a suffix of the original
sequence containing the remaining elements. maxSplits
must be
greater than or equal to zero. The default value is Int.max
.
omittingEmptySubsequences: If false
, an empty subsequence is
returned in the result for each pair of consecutive elements
satisfying the isSeparator
predicate and for each element at the
start or end of the sequence satisfying the isSeparator
predicate.
If true
, only nonempty subsequences are returned. The default
value is true
.
isSeparator: A closure that returns true
if its argument should be
used to split the sequence; otherwise, false
.
Returns: An array of subsequences, split from this sequence's elements.
Declaration
func split(maxSplits: Int = default, omittingEmptySubsequences: Bool = default, whereSeparator isSeparator: (Set<Element>.Element) throws > Bool) rethrows > [AnySequence<Set<Element>.Element>]
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Returns a subsequence, up to the given maximum length, containing the final elements of the sequence.
The sequence must be finite. If the maximum length exceeds the number of elements in the sequence, the result contains all the elements in the sequence.
let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers.suffix(2))
// Prints "[4, 5]"
print(numbers.suffix(10))
// Prints "[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]"
maxLength
: The maximum number of elements to return. The
value of maxLength
must be greater than or equal to zero.
Complexity: O(n), where n is the length of the sequence.
Declaration
func suffix(_ maxLength: Int) > AnySequence<Set<Element>.Element>
Declared In
Collection
, Sequence
Where SubSequence == Slice
Accesses a contiguous subrange of the collection's elements.
The accessed slice uses the same indices for the same elements as the
original collection. Always use the slice's startIndex
property
instead of assuming that its indices start at a particular value.
This example demonstrates getting a slice of an array of strings, finding the index of one of the strings in the slice, and then using that index in the original array.
let streets = ["Adams", "Bryant", "Channing", "Douglas", "Evarts"]
let streetsSlice = streets[2 ..< streets.endIndex]
print(streetsSlice)
// Prints "["Channing", "Douglas", "Evarts"]"
let index = streetsSlice.firstIndex(of: "Evarts") // 4
print(streets[index!])
// Prints "Evarts"
bounds
: A range of the collection's indices. The bounds of
the range must be valid indices of the collection.
Complexity: O(1)
Declaration
subscript(bounds: Range<Set<Element>.Index>) > Slice<Set<Element>> { get }
Declared In
Collection
An unordered collection of unique elements.
You use a set instead of an array when you need to test efficiently for membership and you aren't concerned with the order of the elements in the collection, or when you need to ensure that each element appears only once in a collection.
You can create a set with any element type that conforms to the
Hashable
protocol. By default, most types in the standard library are hashable, including strings, numeric and Boolean types, enumeration cases without associated values, and even sets themselves.Swift makes it as easy to create a new set as to create a new array. Simply assign an array literal to a variable or constant with the
Set
type specified.Set Operations
Sets provide a suite of mathematical set operations. For example, you can efficiently test a set for membership of an element or check its intersection with another set:
contains(_:)
method to test whether a set contains a specific element.==
) to test whether two sets contain the same elements.isSubset(of:)
method to test whether a set contains all the elements of another set or sequence.isSuperset(of:)
method to test whether all elements of a set are contained in another set or sequence.isStrictSubset(of:)
andisStrictSuperset(of:)
methods to test whether a set is a subset or superset of, but not equal to, another set.isDisjoint(with:)
method to test whether a set has any elements in common with another set.You can also combine, exclude, or subtract the elements of two sets:
union(_:)
method to create a new set with the elements of a set and another set or sequence.intersection(_:)
method to create a new set with only the elements common to a set and another set or sequence.symmetricDifference(_:)
method to create a new set with the elements that are in either a set or another set or sequence, but not in both.subtracting(_:)
method to create a new set with the elements of a set that are not also in another set or sequence.You can modify a set in place by using these methods' mutating counterparts:
formUnion(_:)
,formIntersection(_:)
,formSymmetricDifference(_:)
, andsubtract(_:)
.Set operations are not limited to use with other sets. Instead, you can perform set operations with another set, an array, or any other sequence type.
Sequence and Collection Operations
In addition to the
Set
type's set operations, you can use any nonmutating sequence or collection methods with a set.You can iterate through a set's unordered elements with a
for
in
loop.Many sequence and collection operations return an array or a typeerasing collection wrapper instead of a set. To restore efficient set operations, create a new set from the result.
Bridging Between Set and NSSet
You can bridge between
Set
andNSSet
using theas
operator. For bridging to be possible, theElement
type of a set must be a class, an@objc
protocol (a protocol imported from ObjectiveC or marked with the@objc
attribute), or a type that bridges to a Foundation type.Bridging from
Set
toNSSet
always takes O(1) time and space. When the set'sElement
type is neither a class nor an@objc
protocol, any required bridging of elements occurs at the first access of each element, so the first operation that uses the contents of the set (for example, a membership test) can take O(n).Bridging from
NSSet
toSet
first calls thecopy(with:)
method (**copyWithZone:**
in ObjectiveC) on the set to get an immutable copy and then performs additional Swift bookkeeping work that takes O(1) time. For instances ofNSSet
that are already immutable,copy(with:)
returns the same set in constant time; otherwise, the copying performance is unspecified. The instances ofNSSet
andSet
share buffer using the same copyonwrite optimization that is used when two instances ofSet
share buffer.